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Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare body mass index (BMI) in four diet groups (meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) and to investigate lifestyle and dietary factors associated with any observed differences.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data.

PARTICIPANTS

A total of 37875 healthy men and women aged 20-97 y participating in EPIC-Oxford.

RESULTS

Age-adjusted mean BMI was significantly different between the four diet groups, being highest in the meat-eaters (24.41 kg/m(2) in men, 23.52 kg/m(2) in women) and lowest in the vegans (22.49 kg/m(2) in men, 21.98 kg/m(2) in women). Fish-eaters and vegetarians had similar, intermediate mean BMI. Differences in lifestyle factors including smoking, physical activity and education level accounted for less than 5% of the difference in mean age-adjusted BMI between meat-eaters and vegans, whereas differences in macronutrient intake accounted for about half of the difference. High protein (as percent energy) and low fibre intakes were the dietary factors most strongly and consistently associated with increasing BMI both between and within the diet groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Fish-eaters, vegetarians and especially vegans had lower BMI than meat-eaters. Differences in macronutrient intakes accounted for about half the difference in mean BMI between vegans and meat-eaters. High protein and low fibre intakes were the factors most strongly associated with increasing BMI.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. elizabeth.spencer@cancer.org.uk

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Animals
    Body Mass Index
    Cohort Studies
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diet Surveys
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Fishes
    Humans
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12833118

    Citation

    Spencer, E A., et al. "Diet and Body Mass Index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford Meat-eaters, Fish-eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans." International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 27, no. 6, 2003, pp. 728-34.
    Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davey GK, et al. Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(6):728-34.
    Spencer, E. A., Appleby, P. N., Davey, G. K., & Key, T. J. (2003). Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 27(6), pp. 728-34.
    Spencer EA, et al. Diet and Body Mass Index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford Meat-eaters, Fish-eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(6):728-34. PubMed PMID: 12833118.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. AU - Spencer,E A, AU - Appleby,P N, AU - Davey,G K, AU - Key,T J, PY - 2003/7/2/pubmed PY - 2003/7/16/medline PY - 2003/7/2/entrez SP - 728 EP - 34 JF - International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity JO - Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. VL - 27 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare body mass index (BMI) in four diet groups (meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) and to investigate lifestyle and dietary factors associated with any observed differences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37875 healthy men and women aged 20-97 y participating in EPIC-Oxford. RESULTS: Age-adjusted mean BMI was significantly different between the four diet groups, being highest in the meat-eaters (24.41 kg/m(2) in men, 23.52 kg/m(2) in women) and lowest in the vegans (22.49 kg/m(2) in men, 21.98 kg/m(2) in women). Fish-eaters and vegetarians had similar, intermediate mean BMI. Differences in lifestyle factors including smoking, physical activity and education level accounted for less than 5% of the difference in mean age-adjusted BMI between meat-eaters and vegans, whereas differences in macronutrient intake accounted for about half of the difference. High protein (as percent energy) and low fibre intakes were the dietary factors most strongly and consistently associated with increasing BMI both between and within the diet groups. CONCLUSIONS: Fish-eaters, vegetarians and especially vegans had lower BMI than meat-eaters. Differences in macronutrient intakes accounted for about half the difference in mean BMI between vegans and meat-eaters. High protein and low fibre intakes were the factors most strongly associated with increasing BMI. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12833118/full_citation L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=12833118.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -