Modelling biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems - a review.Water Res. 2003 Aug; 37(14):3430-44.WR
The external nitrification (EN) biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (ENBNRAS) system shows considerable promise for full-scale implementation. As an aid for this implementation, a mathematical simulation model would be an invaluable tool. To develop such a model, a study was conducted to select the most suitable simulation model to serve as a starting point for further development. For this, the existing available simulation models for BNRAS systems are compared with one another and evaluated against experimental observations in the literature and on ENBNRAS systems. One process immediately apparent to be crucially important is the anoxic growth of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs), with associated PAO denitrification and anoxic P uptake for polyP formation. These linked processes are lacking in the earlier kinetic simulation models for BNRAS systems, which were based on aerobic PAO growth and P uptake only, but have been incorporated into the more recent kinetic models. This provides a substantive body of information on modelling this aspect. Other processes of significance identified to require consideration are anaerobic slowly biodegradable COD (SBCOD) hydrolysis to readily biodegradable COD (RBCOD), and COD loss. Both processes have significant impact on the predicted BEPR performance. Due to the uncertainties associated with the mechanisms and quantification of these two processes, it is concluded that the most extensively validated kinetic simulation model should be selected for development, and that the omissions in this model should be addressed progressively, using the relevant information drawn from the existing models, the literature and observations on ENBNRAS systems.