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Isoflavone-rich soy protein prevents loss of hip lean mass but does not prevent the shift in regional fat distribution in perimenopausal women.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Menopause-induced estrogen deficiency increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is related to a shift in regional fat distribution. We tested the hypothesis that estrogen-like isoflavones in soy protein isolate (SPI+) would lessen both regional fat gain and lean loss compared with isoflavone-poor soy (SPI-).

DESIGN

Perimenopausal participants (N = 69) were randomly assigned (double-blind) to 24 weeks of treatment (40 g soy or whey protein per day): SPI+ (n = 24), SPI- (n = 24), or whey control (n = 21); each participant had blood drawn in the fasted (12 hours) state, had physical activity assessed, and kept a 5-day food diary. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to examine the effects of SPI+ on regional fat and lean tissue distribution changes in the waist, hip, and thigh regions.

RESULTS

Mean body mass increased (P < 0.01) in each group, but treatment had no effect on gain in overall body mass, fat mass, or lean mass using analysis of variance. In all treatment groups combined, lean mass increased in each region; fat mass increased only in the waist region. Treatment had an effect (P = 0.039) on hip lean mass and a marginal effect (P = 0.077) on thigh fat. Regression analyses revealed that SPI+ diminished the increase in thigh fat (P = 0.018) and heightened the increase in hip lean (P = 0.035) mass. Carbohydrate intake (P = 0.006) and cohort (reflective of season; P = 0.011) contributed to the gain in thigh fat. Total protein intake (P = 0.0012), plasma insulin (P = 0.0034), and physical activity (P = 0.047) contributed to the gain in hip lean mass.

CONCLUSIONS

Gain in hip lean mass was greater (P = 0.014) in SPI+ than other groups, but SPI+ did not reduce the disease-promoting menopausal shift in regional fat mass.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Analysis of Variance
    Body Composition
    Body Constitution
    Climacteric
    Double-Blind Method
    Female
    Humans
    Isoflavones
    Middle Aged
    Patient Compliance
    Regression Analysis
    Soybean Proteins

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12851515

    Citation

    Moeller, Laura E., et al. "Isoflavone-rich Soy Protein Prevents Loss of Hip Lean Mass but Does Not Prevent the Shift in Regional Fat Distribution in Perimenopausal Women." Menopause (New York, N.Y.), vol. 10, no. 4, 2003, pp. 322-31.
    Moeller LE, Peterson CT, Hanson KB, et al. Isoflavone-rich soy protein prevents loss of hip lean mass but does not prevent the shift in regional fat distribution in perimenopausal women. Menopause. 2003;10(4):322-31.
    Moeller, L. E., Peterson, C. T., Hanson, K. B., Dent, S. B., Lewis, D. S., King, D. S., & Alekel, D. L. (2003). Isoflavone-rich soy protein prevents loss of hip lean mass but does not prevent the shift in regional fat distribution in perimenopausal women. Menopause (New York, N.Y.), 10(4), pp. 322-31.
    Moeller LE, et al. Isoflavone-rich Soy Protein Prevents Loss of Hip Lean Mass but Does Not Prevent the Shift in Regional Fat Distribution in Perimenopausal Women. Menopause. 2003;10(4):322-31. PubMed PMID: 12851515.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Isoflavone-rich soy protein prevents loss of hip lean mass but does not prevent the shift in regional fat distribution in perimenopausal women. AU - Moeller,Laura E, AU - Peterson,Charles T, AU - Hanson,Kathy B, AU - Dent,Sarah B, AU - Lewis,Douglas S, AU - King,Douglas S, AU - Alekel,D Lee, PY - 2003/7/10/pubmed PY - 2003/10/8/medline PY - 2003/7/10/entrez SP - 322 EP - 31 JF - Menopause (New York, N.Y.) JO - Menopause VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Menopause-induced estrogen deficiency increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is related to a shift in regional fat distribution. We tested the hypothesis that estrogen-like isoflavones in soy protein isolate (SPI+) would lessen both regional fat gain and lean loss compared with isoflavone-poor soy (SPI-). DESIGN: Perimenopausal participants (N = 69) were randomly assigned (double-blind) to 24 weeks of treatment (40 g soy or whey protein per day): SPI+ (n = 24), SPI- (n = 24), or whey control (n = 21); each participant had blood drawn in the fasted (12 hours) state, had physical activity assessed, and kept a 5-day food diary. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to examine the effects of SPI+ on regional fat and lean tissue distribution changes in the waist, hip, and thigh regions. RESULTS: Mean body mass increased (P < 0.01) in each group, but treatment had no effect on gain in overall body mass, fat mass, or lean mass using analysis of variance. In all treatment groups combined, lean mass increased in each region; fat mass increased only in the waist region. Treatment had an effect (P = 0.039) on hip lean mass and a marginal effect (P = 0.077) on thigh fat. Regression analyses revealed that SPI+ diminished the increase in thigh fat (P = 0.018) and heightened the increase in hip lean (P = 0.035) mass. Carbohydrate intake (P = 0.006) and cohort (reflective of season; P = 0.011) contributed to the gain in thigh fat. Total protein intake (P = 0.0012), plasma insulin (P = 0.0034), and physical activity (P = 0.047) contributed to the gain in hip lean mass. CONCLUSIONS: Gain in hip lean mass was greater (P = 0.014) in SPI+ than other groups, but SPI+ did not reduce the disease-promoting menopausal shift in regional fat mass. SN - 1072-3714 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12851515/Isoflavone_rich_soy_protein_prevents_loss_of_hip_lean_mass_but_does_not_prevent_the_shift_in_regional_fat_distribution_in_perimenopausal_women_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=12851515 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -