Effect of ULV malathion use in boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) eradication on resistance in the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae).J Econ Entomol. 2003 Jun; 96(3):902-8.JE
Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), from regions 1, 2, and 3 of the boll weevil, Anthonomous grandis Boheman, eradication program in Mississippi were collected from wild hosts and tested for malathion resistance during the spring and fall of 2000 and 2001. Plant bugs were also tested in region 1 in late-July and October of 1999, just before and after multiple applications of ultra-low-volume (ULV) malathion were used for reproduction-diapause control of boll weevils in August and September. Regions 1 (north Delta), 2 (south Delta), and 3 (hills) began boll weevil eradication in 1999, 1998, and 1997, respectively. A glass-vial bioassay was used to determine resistance in plant bugs to malathion by comparing LC50 values against an LC50 value obtained for susceptible plant bugs. Comparison of the LC50 value obtained for plant bugs at a location in the spring was also made with the LC50 value obtained in the fall at the same location. After multiple applications of malathion made for reproduction-diapause boll weevil control in region 1 in August and September, malathion resistance increased by 4.9-, 6.5-, and 20.8-fold in plant bug populations from the three test locations. Results from testing bugs from all three eradication regions were similar. Malathion resistance usually increased significantly from spring to fall and then declined significantly from fall to spring of the next year. Despite reduced use of malathion in all three eradication regions for boll weevils in 2001, resistance to malathion in plant bugs still increased significantly from spring to fall at all test locations in regions 1 and 2 (the Delta). Malathion resistance did not increase significantly in plant bug populations in region 3 (the hills) in 2001 from spring to fall at three of four test locations in this year. Possible causes for the higher malathion resistance found in plant bugs in the Delta are discussed. Overall test results showed that the use of malathion in boll weevil eradication in cotton probably contributed to increases in resistance to malathion in plant bug populations in the eradication areas. However, the expression of this resistance was usually rapidly lost by spring of the following year. Boll weevil eradication did not seem to produce a permanent increase in the expression of malathion resistance in tarnished plant bug populations found in the eradication regions.