Crystal structures of the T4 phage beta-glucosyltransferase and the D100A mutant in complex with UDP-glucose: glucose binding and identification of the catalytic base for a direct displacement mechanism.J Mol Biol. 2003 Jul 25; 330(5):1077-86.JM
T4 phage beta-glucosyltransferase (BGT) is an inverting glycosyltransferase (GT) that transfers glucose from uridine diphospho-glucose (UDP-glucose) to an acceptor modified DNA. BGT belongs to the GT-B structural superfamily, represented, so far, by five different inverting or retaining GT families. Here, we report three high-resolution X-ray structures of BGT and a point mutant solved in the presence of UDP-glucose. The two co-crystal structures of the D100A mutant show that, unlike the wild-type enzyme, this mutation prevents glucose hydrolysis. This strongly indicates that Asp100 is the catalytic base. We obtained the wild-type BGT-UDP-glucose complex by soaking substrate-free BGT crystals. Comparison with a previous structure of BGT solved in the presence of the donor product UDP and an acceptor analogue provides the first model of an inverting GT-B enzyme in which both the donor and acceptor substrates are bound to the active site. The structural analyses support the in-line displacement reaction mechanism previously proposed, locate residues involved in donor substrate specificity and identify the catalytic base.