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An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Overweight and obesity are epidemic in Western societies and constitute a major public health problem because of adverse effects on vascular health. Vascular factors may play a role in the development of a rapidly growing disease of late life, Alzheimer disease (AD). Using body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), we examined whether overweight is a risk factor for dementia and AD.

METHODS

The relationship between BMI and dementia risk was investigated in a representative cohort of 392 nondemented Swedish adults who were followed up from age 70 to 88 years, with the use of neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, and other measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses included BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status, and treatment for hypertension.

RESULTS

During the 18-year follow-up (4184.8 risk-years), 93 participants were diagnosed as having dementia. Women who developed dementia between ages 79 and 88 years were overweight, with a higher average BMI at age 70 years (27.7 vs 25.7; P =.007), 75 years (27.9 vs 25.0; P<.001), and 79 years (26.9 vs 25.1; P =.02) compared with nondemented women. A higher degree of overweight was observed in women who developed AD at 70 years (29.3; P =.009), 75 years (29.6; P<.001), and 79 years (28.2; P =.003) compared with nondemented women. For every 1.0 increase in BMI at age 70 years, AD risk increased by 36%. These associations were not found in men.

CONCLUSIONS

Overweight is epidemic in Western societies. Our data suggest that overweight at high ages is a risk factor for dementia, particularly AD, in women. This may have profound implications for dementia prevention.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, USA. deb.gustafson@neuro.gu.se

    , , ,

    Source

    Archives of internal medicine 163:13 2003 Jul 14 pg 1524-8

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Alzheimer Disease
    Analysis of Variance
    Body Mass Index
    Chi-Square Distribution
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Obesity
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Risk Factors
    Sweden

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12860573

    Citation

    Gustafson, Deborah, et al. "An 18-year Follow-up of Overweight and Risk of Alzheimer Disease." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 13, 2003, pp. 1524-8.
    Gustafson D, Rothenberg E, Blennow K, et al. An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(13):1524-8.
    Gustafson, D., Rothenberg, E., Blennow, K., Steen, B., & Skoog, I. (2003). An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(13), pp. 1524-8.
    Gustafson D, et al. An 18-year Follow-up of Overweight and Risk of Alzheimer Disease. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jul 14;163(13):1524-8. PubMed PMID: 12860573.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - An 18-year follow-up of overweight and risk of Alzheimer disease. AU - Gustafson,Deborah, AU - Rothenberg,Elisabet, AU - Blennow,Kaj, AU - Steen,Bertil, AU - Skoog,Ingmar, PY - 2003/7/16/pubmed PY - 2003/8/6/medline PY - 2003/7/16/entrez SP - 1524 EP - 8 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 163 IS - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are epidemic in Western societies and constitute a major public health problem because of adverse effects on vascular health. Vascular factors may play a role in the development of a rapidly growing disease of late life, Alzheimer disease (AD). Using body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), we examined whether overweight is a risk factor for dementia and AD. METHODS: The relationship between BMI and dementia risk was investigated in a representative cohort of 392 nondemented Swedish adults who were followed up from age 70 to 88 years, with the use of neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, and other measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses included BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status, and treatment for hypertension. RESULTS: During the 18-year follow-up (4184.8 risk-years), 93 participants were diagnosed as having dementia. Women who developed dementia between ages 79 and 88 years were overweight, with a higher average BMI at age 70 years (27.7 vs 25.7; P =.007), 75 years (27.9 vs 25.0; P<.001), and 79 years (26.9 vs 25.1; P =.02) compared with nondemented women. A higher degree of overweight was observed in women who developed AD at 70 years (29.3; P =.009), 75 years (29.6; P<.001), and 79 years (28.2; P =.003) compared with nondemented women. For every 1.0 increase in BMI at age 70 years, AD risk increased by 36%. These associations were not found in men. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight is epidemic in Western societies. Our data suggest that overweight at high ages is a risk factor for dementia, particularly AD, in women. This may have profound implications for dementia prevention. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12860573/An_18_year_follow_up_of_overweight_and_risk_of_Alzheimer_disease_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/vol/163/pg/1524 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -