Premenopausal fat intake and risk of breast cancer.J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95(14):1079-85JNCI
International comparisons and case-control studies have suggested a positive relation between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk, but prospective studies, most of them involving postmenopausal women, have not supported this association. We conducted a prospective analysis of the relation between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among premenopausal women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk were assessed among 90 655 premenopausal women aged 26 to 46 years in 1991. Fat intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1991 and again in 1995. Breast cancers were self-reported and confirmed by review of pathology reports. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided.
During 8 years of follow-up, 714 women developed incident invasive breast cancer. Relative to women in the lowest quintile of fat intake, women in the highest quintile of intake had a slight increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.59; P(trend) =.06). The increase was associated with intake of animal fat but not vegetable fat; RRs for the increasing quintiles of animal fat intake were 1.00 (referent), 1.28, 1.37, 1.54, and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.73; P(trend) =.002). Intakes of both saturated and monounsaturated fat were related to modestly elevated breast cancer risk. Among food groups contributing to animal fat, red meat and high-fat dairy foods were each associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
Intake of animal fat, mainly from red meat and high-fat dairy foods, during premenopausal years is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.