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Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men.

Abstract

Intake of calcium and/or dairy products has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in some epidemiological studies. One potential biological mechanism is that high calcium intake down-regulates 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3), which may increase cell proliferation in the prostate. We examined the association between calcium, dairy intake, and prostate cancer incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective cohort of elderly United States adults. Participants in the study completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, medical history, and lifestyle at enrollment in 1992-1993. After excluding men with a history of cancer or incomplete dietary information, 65,321 men remained for analysis. During follow-up through August 31, 1999, we documented 3811 cases of incident prostate cancer. Multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Total calcium intake (from diet and supplements) was associated with modestly increased risk of prostate cancer [RR = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6 for >or=2000 versus <700 mg/day, P trend = 0.02). High dietary calcium intake (>or=2000 versus <700 mg/day) was also associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3, P trend = 0.10), although moderate levels of dietary calcium were not associated with increased risk. Dairy intake was not associated with prostate cancer risk. The association between prostate cancer and total calcium intake was strongest for men who reported not having prostate-specific antigen testing before 1992 (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0, P trend < 0.01 for >or= 2000 mg/day of total calcium; RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 >or=2000 mg/day of dietary calcium, P trend = 0.04). Our results support the hypothesis that very high calcium intake, above the recommended intake for men, may modestly increase risk of prostate cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Epidemiology and Surveillance Research Department, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia 30309, USA.

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    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Calcium, Dietary
    Dairy Products
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Prospective Studies
    Prostate-Specific Antigen
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Time Factors
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12869397

    Citation

    Rodriguez, Carmen, et al. "Calcium, Dairy Products, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Prospective Cohort of United States Men." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 12, no. 7, 2003, pp. 597-603.
    Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, et al. Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(7):597-603.
    Rodriguez, C., McCullough, M. L., Mondul, A. M., Jacobs, E. J., Fakhrabadi-Shokoohi, D., Giovannucci, E. L., ... Calle, E. E. (2003). Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 12(7), pp. 597-603.
    Rodriguez C, et al. Calcium, Dairy Products, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Prospective Cohort of United States Men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(7):597-603. PubMed PMID: 12869397.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. AU - Rodriguez,Carmen, AU - McCullough,Marjorie L, AU - Mondul,Alison M, AU - Jacobs,Eric J, AU - Fakhrabadi-Shokoohi,Dorna, AU - Giovannucci,Edward L, AU - Thun,Michael J, AU - Calle,Eugenia E, PY - 2003/7/19/pubmed PY - 2004/3/26/medline PY - 2003/7/19/entrez SP - 597 EP - 603 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 12 IS - 7 N2 - Intake of calcium and/or dairy products has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in some epidemiological studies. One potential biological mechanism is that high calcium intake down-regulates 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3), which may increase cell proliferation in the prostate. We examined the association between calcium, dairy intake, and prostate cancer incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective cohort of elderly United States adults. Participants in the study completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, medical history, and lifestyle at enrollment in 1992-1993. After excluding men with a history of cancer or incomplete dietary information, 65,321 men remained for analysis. During follow-up through August 31, 1999, we documented 3811 cases of incident prostate cancer. Multivariate-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Total calcium intake (from diet and supplements) was associated with modestly increased risk of prostate cancer [RR = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6 for >or=2000 versus <700 mg/day, P trend = 0.02). High dietary calcium intake (>or=2000 versus <700 mg/day) was also associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3, P trend = 0.10), although moderate levels of dietary calcium were not associated with increased risk. Dairy intake was not associated with prostate cancer risk. The association between prostate cancer and total calcium intake was strongest for men who reported not having prostate-specific antigen testing before 1992 (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0, P trend < 0.01 for >or= 2000 mg/day of total calcium; RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 >or=2000 mg/day of dietary calcium, P trend = 0.04). Our results support the hypothesis that very high calcium intake, above the recommended intake for men, may modestly increase risk of prostate cancer. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12869397/Calcium_dairy_products_and_risk_of_prostate_cancer_in_a_prospective_cohort_of_United_States_men_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=12869397 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -