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Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Aug; 57(8):947-55.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Evaluation of dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of German vegans.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

SETTINGS

Germany.

SUBJECTS

Subjects were recruited through journal advertisements. Of 868 volunteers, only 154 participated in all study segments (pre- and main questionnaire, two 9-day food frequency questionnaires, blood sampling) and fulfilled the following study criteria: vegan dietary intake at least 1 year prior to study start, minimum age of 18 y, no pregnancy or childbirth during the last 12 months.

INTERVENTIONS

No interventions.

RESULTS

All the 154 subjects had a comparatively low BMI (median 21.2 kg/m(2)), with an extremely low mean consumption of alcohol (0.77+/-3.14 g/day) and tobacco (96.8% were nonsmokers). Mean energy intake (total collective: 8.23+/-2.77 MJ) was higher in strict vegans than in moderate ones. Mean carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes in proportion to energy (total collective: 57.1:29.7:11.6%) agreed with current recommendations. Recommended intakes for vitamins and minerals were attained through diet, except for calcium (median intake: 81.1% of recommendation), iodine (median: 40.6%), and cobalamin (median: 8.8%). For the male subgroup, the intake of a small amount of food of animal origin improved vitamin and mineral nutrient densities (except for zinc), whereas this was not the case for the female subgroup (except for calcium).

CONCLUSION

In order to reach favourable vitamin and mineral intakes, vegans should consider taking supplements containing riboflavin, cobalamin, calcium, and iodine. Intake of total energy and protein should also be improved.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Food Science, University of Hanover, Hanover, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12879089

Citation

Waldmann, A, et al. "Dietary Intakes and Lifestyle Factors of a Vegan Population in Germany: Results From the German Vegan Study." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 8, 2003, pp. 947-55.
Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, et al. Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(8):947-55.
Waldmann, A., Koschizke, J. W., Leitzmann, C., & Hahn, A. (2003). Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(8), 947-55.
Waldmann A, et al. Dietary Intakes and Lifestyle Factors of a Vegan Population in Germany: Results From the German Vegan Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(8):947-55. PubMed PMID: 12879089.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study. AU - Waldmann,A, AU - Koschizke,J W, AU - Leitzmann,C, AU - Hahn,A, PY - 2003/7/25/pubmed PY - 2003/12/19/medline PY - 2003/7/25/entrez SP - 947 EP - 55 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 57 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of German vegans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Germany. SUBJECTS: Subjects were recruited through journal advertisements. Of 868 volunteers, only 154 participated in all study segments (pre- and main questionnaire, two 9-day food frequency questionnaires, blood sampling) and fulfilled the following study criteria: vegan dietary intake at least 1 year prior to study start, minimum age of 18 y, no pregnancy or childbirth during the last 12 months. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions. RESULTS: All the 154 subjects had a comparatively low BMI (median 21.2 kg/m(2)), with an extremely low mean consumption of alcohol (0.77+/-3.14 g/day) and tobacco (96.8% were nonsmokers). Mean energy intake (total collective: 8.23+/-2.77 MJ) was higher in strict vegans than in moderate ones. Mean carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes in proportion to energy (total collective: 57.1:29.7:11.6%) agreed with current recommendations. Recommended intakes for vitamins and minerals were attained through diet, except for calcium (median intake: 81.1% of recommendation), iodine (median: 40.6%), and cobalamin (median: 8.8%). For the male subgroup, the intake of a small amount of food of animal origin improved vitamin and mineral nutrient densities (except for zinc), whereas this was not the case for the female subgroup (except for calcium). CONCLUSION: In order to reach favourable vitamin and mineral intakes, vegans should consider taking supplements containing riboflavin, cobalamin, calcium, and iodine. Intake of total energy and protein should also be improved. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12879089/Dietary_intakes_and_lifestyle_factors_of_a_vegan_population_in_Germany:_results_from_the_German_Vegan_Study_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -