Enantioseparation of warfarin and its metabolites by capillary zone electrophoresis.Electrophoresis. 2003 Aug; 24(15):2617-26.E
A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with direct ultraviolet (UV)-absorbance detection is presented for the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of warfarin and its main metabolites, including warfarin alcohols, 4'-, 6-, and 7-hydroxywarfarin, using highly sulfated beta-cyclodextrin (HS-beta-CD) as the chiral selector. This chiral separation method was optimized in terms of the electrophoretic parameters, which included the concentration of HS-beta-CD used, the type and composition of organic modifier added to the background electrolyte (BGE) buffer, and the BGE buffer pH. Chiral separation of warfarin and its major metabolites was achieved with high resolution, selectivity, efficiency, repeatability, and reproducibility. This optimized chiral analysis of warfarin along with its metabolites was completed within a satisfactory electrophoresis time of 20 min.