Effect of prolonged gastric distention on lower esophageal sphincter function and gastroesophageal reflux.Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98(8):1696-704AJ
Morbidly obese patients treated with an intragastric balloon report a transient increase in gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms. In the present study, we evaluated the underlying mechanisms of GER and examined the effect of prolonged gastric distention on lower esophageal sphincter function.
Fasting and postprandial manometric studies were performed in obese subjects (n = 15) before, immediately after, and 10 and 20 wk after placement of a 500-ml water-filled balloon.
Residual lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure after water swallows was not affected after balloon placement, excluding mechanical interaction with sleeve function. Postprandial LES pressure was significantly increased after 10 and 20 wk. GER was increased in the right recumbent position until 10 wk after balloon placement, mainly because of an increased percentage of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) accompanied by GER. TLESRs were the main mechanisms underlying reflux both before and after balloon placement. The rate of TLESRs was increased significantly immediately after introduction of the balloon, returning to baseline values after 20 wk. After balloon placement, reflux episodes were evoked by gastric contractions that were not inhibited by meals.
Chronic distention by an intragastric balloon increased reflux up to 10 wk after placement because of an increase in the percentage of TLESRs accompanied by a reflux episode. In addition, prolonged balloon distention increased the rate of TLESRs and created a postprandial state even 10 wk after balloon placement. After 20 wk these effects largely resolved, illustrating adaptation to this artificial situation.