Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate.Eur J Med Res. 2003 Jul 31; 8(7):295-303.EJ
Safety and effect intrapulmonary administration (by inhalation) of 60 % honey solution, 10% dextrose or distill water on blood sugar, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate, and peaked expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in normal or diabetic subjects were studied. - Twenty-four healthy subjects, 16 patients with type 11 diabetes mellitus and six patients with hypertension were entered for study. They were underwent complete physical examination and laboratory investigations. Twelve healthy subjects were subjected for distill water inhalation for 10 min, and after one week they received inhalation of honey solution (60% wt/v) for 10 min. Another 12 healthy subjects received inhalation of 10% dextrose for 10 min. Blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate and PEFR were estimated before inhalation and during 2-3 hrs after inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Random blood glucose level was estimated in eight patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and repeated 30 min after honey inhalation. One week later, fasting blood glucose level was estimated in each patient and blood glucose level was re-estimated during three hrs after honey inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Glucose tolerance test was performed in another eight patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and after one week the procedure was repeated with inhalation of honey, which was started immediately after ingestion of glucose. Six hypertensive patients received honey inhalation for 10 min; supine blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after inhalation. - Results showed that in normal subjects distill water caused mild elevation of blood glucose level, mild lowering of plasma insulin, and significant reduction of plasma C-peptide. 10% dextrose inhalation caused mild reduction of plasma insulin and C-peptide and unremarkable changes in blood glucose level. No significant changes were obtained in blood pressure, heart rate or PEFR after distill water or 10% dextrose inhalation. Honey inhalation caused lowering of blood glucose level and elevation of plasma insulin and C-peptide, mild reduction of blood pressure and up to 11 and 16 percent increase in PEFR. Honey inhalation significantly reduced random blood glucose level from 199 +/- 40.9 mg/dl to 156 +/- 52.3 mg/dl after 30 min (p = 0.0303). Fasting blood glucose level was reduced after honey inhalation during three hr post-inhalation, which was significant at hr three (p<0.05). Intensity of hyperglycemia was significantly lowered in glucose tolerance test when patients received honey inhalation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced by honey inhalation in hypertensive patients; significant changes were obtained at 60 and 120 min after inhalation. No adverse effects were observed with inhalation of distill water, 10% dextrose and 60% honey solution except for nasal watery discharge experienced by all subjects and mild cough that was experienced by seven subjects after honey inhalation. - The results demonstrated that honey inhalation was safe and effective in reducing blood glucose level, in normal and diabetic subjects, it could improve glucose tolerance test, elevate plasma insulin and C-peptide and PEFR, and reduce elevated blood pressure in hypertensive patients.