Simulating the hydrodynamic conditions in the United States Pharmacopeia paddle dissolution apparatus.AAPS PharmSciTech. 2003; 4(2):E22.AP
The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of developing a high-performance computing software system to simulate the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 2 (paddle apparatus) and thus aid in characterizing the fluid hydrodynamics in the method. The USP apparatus was modeled using the hydrodynamic package Fluent. The Gambit program was used to create a "wireframe" of the apparatus and generate the 3-dimensional grids for the computational fluid dynamics solver. The Fluent solver was run on an IBM RS/6000 SP distributed memory parallel processor system, using 8 processors. Configurations with and without a tablet present were developed and examined. Simulations for a liquid-filled vessel at a paddle speed of 50 rpm were generated. Large variations in fluid velocity magnitudes with position in the vessel were evident. Fluid velocity predictions were in good agreement with those previously published, using laser Doppler velocity measurements. A low-velocity domain was evident directly below the center of the rotating paddle. The model was extended to simulate the impact of the presence of a cylindrical tablet in the base of the dissolution vessel. The presence of the tablet complicated the local fluid flow, and large fluid shear rates were evident at the base of the compact. Fluid shear rates varied depending on the tablet surface and the location on the surface and were consistent with the reported asymmetrical dissolution of model tablets. The approach has the potential to explain the variable dissolution results reported and to aid in the design/prediction of optimal dissolution conditions for in vitro--in vivo correlations.