Effects of solvent and temperature on pressurized liquid extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from dried red grape skin.J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Aug 27; 51(18):5207-13.JA
Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used to extract anthocyanins from the freeze-dried skin of a highly pigmented red wine grape with six solvents at 50 degrees C, 10.1 MPa, and 3 x 5 min extraction cycles. Temperature (from 20 to 140 degrees C in 20 degrees C increments) effects on anthocyanin recovery by acidified water and acidified 60% methanol were also studied. Acidified methanol extracted the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas the solvent mixture (40:40:20:0.1 methanol/acetone/water HCl) extracted the highest levels of total phenolics and total acylated anthocyanins. Acidified water extracts obtained by PLE at 80-100 degrees C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides, total acylated anthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and ORAC values. Acidified methanol extracts obtained by PLE at 60 degrees C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas extracts obtained at 120 degrees C had the highest levels of total phenolics. High-temperature PLE (80-100 degrees C) using acidified water, an environmentally friendly solvent, was as effective as acidified 60% methanol in extracting anthocyanins from grape skins.