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Individual and mixture toxicity of three pesticides; atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta.
J Environ Sci Health B. 2003 Sep; 38(5):529-38.JE

Abstract

This study analyzed the toxicity of three pesticides (the herbicide atrazine, the insecticide chlorpyrifos and the fungicide chlorothalonil) individually, and in two mixtures (atrazine and chlorpyrifos; atrazine and chlorothalonil) to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta). A standard 96 h static algal bioassay was used to determine pesticide effects on the population growth rate of D. tertiolecta. Mixture toxicity was assessed using the additive index approach. Atrazine and chlorothalonil concentrations > or = 25 microg/L and 33.3 microg/L, respectively, caused significant decreases in D. tertiolecta population growth rate. At much higher concentrations (> or = 400 microg/L) chlorpyrifos also elicited a significant effect on D. tertiolecta population growth rate, but toxicity would not be expected at typical environmental concentrations. The population growth rate EC50 values determined for D. tertiolecta were 64 microg/L for chlorothalonil, 69 microg/L for atrazine, and 769 microg/L for chlorpyrifos. Atrazine and chlorpyrifos in mixture displayed additive toxicity, whereas atrazine and chlorothalonil in mixture had a synergistic effect. The toxicity of atrazine and chlorothalonil combined was approximately 2 times greater than that of the individual chemicals. Therefore, decreases in phytoplankton populations resulting from pesticide exposure could occur at lower than expected concentrations in aquatic systems where atrazine and chlorothalonil are present in mixture. Detrimental effects on phytoplankton population growth rate could impact nutrient cycling rates and food availability to higher trophic levels. Characterizing the toxicity of chemical mixtures likely to be encountered in the environment may benefit the pesticide registration and regulation process.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, US Department of Commerce/NOAA, National Ocean Service, Charleston, South Carolina 29412, USA. marie.delorenzo@noaa.govNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12929712

Citation

DeLorenzo, Marie E., and Lorimar Serrano. "Individual and Mixture Toxicity of Three Pesticides; Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, and Chlorothalonil to the Marine Phytoplankton Species Dunaliella Tertiolecta." Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, vol. 38, no. 5, 2003, pp. 529-38.
DeLorenzo ME, Serrano L. Individual and mixture toxicity of three pesticides; atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. J Environ Sci Health B. 2003;38(5):529-38.
DeLorenzo, M. E., & Serrano, L. (2003). Individual and mixture toxicity of three pesticides; atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 38(5), 529-38.
DeLorenzo ME, Serrano L. Individual and Mixture Toxicity of Three Pesticides; Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, and Chlorothalonil to the Marine Phytoplankton Species Dunaliella Tertiolecta. J Environ Sci Health B. 2003;38(5):529-38. PubMed PMID: 12929712.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Individual and mixture toxicity of three pesticides; atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and chlorothalonil to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta. AU - DeLorenzo,Marie E, AU - Serrano,Lorimar, PY - 2003/8/22/pubmed PY - 2003/12/24/medline PY - 2003/8/22/entrez SP - 529 EP - 38 JF - Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes JO - J Environ Sci Health B VL - 38 IS - 5 N2 - This study analyzed the toxicity of three pesticides (the herbicide atrazine, the insecticide chlorpyrifos and the fungicide chlorothalonil) individually, and in two mixtures (atrazine and chlorpyrifos; atrazine and chlorothalonil) to the marine phytoplankton species Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta). A standard 96 h static algal bioassay was used to determine pesticide effects on the population growth rate of D. tertiolecta. Mixture toxicity was assessed using the additive index approach. Atrazine and chlorothalonil concentrations > or = 25 microg/L and 33.3 microg/L, respectively, caused significant decreases in D. tertiolecta population growth rate. At much higher concentrations (> or = 400 microg/L) chlorpyrifos also elicited a significant effect on D. tertiolecta population growth rate, but toxicity would not be expected at typical environmental concentrations. The population growth rate EC50 values determined for D. tertiolecta were 64 microg/L for chlorothalonil, 69 microg/L for atrazine, and 769 microg/L for chlorpyrifos. Atrazine and chlorpyrifos in mixture displayed additive toxicity, whereas atrazine and chlorothalonil in mixture had a synergistic effect. The toxicity of atrazine and chlorothalonil combined was approximately 2 times greater than that of the individual chemicals. Therefore, decreases in phytoplankton populations resulting from pesticide exposure could occur at lower than expected concentrations in aquatic systems where atrazine and chlorothalonil are present in mixture. Detrimental effects on phytoplankton population growth rate could impact nutrient cycling rates and food availability to higher trophic levels. Characterizing the toxicity of chemical mixtures likely to be encountered in the environment may benefit the pesticide registration and regulation process. SN - 0360-1234 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12929712/Individual_and_mixture_toxicity_of_three_pesticides L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1081/PFC-120023511 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -