Iron status of South African women working in a fruit-packing factory.Public Health Nutr. 2003 Aug; 6(5):439-45.PH
The aim of this study was to determine the iron status, and the risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA), of non-pregnant adult women working in a fruit-packing factory.
A cross-sectional analytical study was done on 338 women, 18 to 55 years of age. Information on demographic data, risk factors for ID, smoking, and the consumption of red meat, chicken and fish was collected by questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and the body mass index (BMI) calculated. A non-fasting venous blood sample was analysed for haemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum iron, serum transferrin and C-reactive protein; transferrin saturation (TFS) was calculated.
Fruit-packing factory in the Western Cape, South Africa.
The mean value for Hb was 13.06 (standard deviation (SD) 1.16) g dl-1 and for SF 48.0 (SD 47.8) microg l-1 (geometric mean 26.44 microg l-1). Women were categorised on the basis of iron status: 60% had a normal iron status (NIS); 12.6% had low TFS (<16%) but normal Hb (>or=12 g dl-1) and SF (>or=12 microg l-1) concentrations (LTS); and 27.4% had low iron status (LIS), defined as combinations of low SF (<12 microg l-1 or <20 microg l-1), low TFS (<16%) and low Hb (<12 g dl-1). More than 30% of the women were obese The risk ratio for LIS (LIS vs. NIS) was 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-7.6) if women were still menstruating or 3.2 (95% CI 1.6-6.2) if they were pregnant during the past 12 months. Women with LIS consumed significantly smaller portions of red meat, chicken and fish than did women in the other two groups.
IDA (low Hb, SF and TFS) and ID (low SF and TFS) did not seem to be a major problem. Women who were still menstruating or were pregnant during the past 12 months were at greater risk for ID. The consumption of smaller portions of red meat, chicken and fish was related to LIS. A high prevalence of obesity, which demonstrated the coexistence of both under- and overnutrition, was observed.