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Effects of stimulant medications on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and excessive beta activity in their EEG.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study investigated the effects of stimulant medications on the Electroencephalography (EEG) of children with the combined type of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) together with excessive beta activity in their EEG.

METHODS

Twenty ADHD and 20 control subjects participated in this study. EEG was recorded from 21 sites during an eyes-closed resting condition and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for total power and absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands, and for the theta/alpha and theta/beta ratios. Subjects were placed on a 6-month trial of a stimulant medication and a second EEG was recorded at the end of the trial.

RESULTS

The unmedicated ADHD group had greater absolute and relative beta, less absolute and relative alpha, a higher theta/alpha and a lower theta/beta ratio than the control group. In the frontal regions the ADHD group had an increase in total power, absolute theta, absolute and relative beta and the theta/beta ratio, with greater relative delta, relative theta, and absolute and relative alpha in posterior regions. With medication use, absolute beta activity and frontal total power decreased, although these changes represented a reduction in power, not a normalisation.

CONCLUSIONS

These results indicate that ADHD children with excessive beta activity in their EEG are probably not hypoaroused as previously suggested, and that beta activity in these children is probably only associated with the impulsivity and/or hyperactivity aspects of the disorder, but may not necessarily be associated with inattention.

SIGNIFICANCE

This study is the first to investigate effects of stimulant medications on the EEG of ADHD children with excessive beta activity in their EEG.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Brain and Behaviour Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2522, Australia. adam_clarke@uow.edu.au

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Beta Rhythm
    Brain Mapping
    Case-Control Studies
    Central Nervous System Stimulants
    Cerebral Cortex
    Child
    Dextroamphetamine
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
    Electroencephalography
    Evoked Potentials
    Functional Laterality
    Humans
    Male
    Methylphenidate
    Psychometrics
    Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12948803

    Citation

    Clarke, Adam R., et al. "Effects of Stimulant Medications On Children With Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Excessive Beta Activity in Their EEG." Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 114, no. 9, 2003, pp. 1729-37.
    Clarke AR, Barry RJ, McCarthy R, et al. Effects of stimulant medications on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and excessive beta activity in their EEG. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;114(9):1729-37.
    Clarke, A. R., Barry, R. J., McCarthy, R., Selikowitz, M., Clarke, D. C., & Croft, R. J. (2003). Effects of stimulant medications on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and excessive beta activity in their EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 114(9), pp. 1729-37.
    Clarke AR, et al. Effects of Stimulant Medications On Children With Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Excessive Beta Activity in Their EEG. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003;114(9):1729-37. PubMed PMID: 12948803.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of stimulant medications on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and excessive beta activity in their EEG. AU - Clarke,Adam R, AU - Barry,Robert J, AU - McCarthy,Rory, AU - Selikowitz,Mark, AU - Clarke,Donna C, AU - Croft,Rodney J, PY - 2003/9/2/pubmed PY - 2003/11/5/medline PY - 2003/9/2/entrez SP - 1729 EP - 37 JF - Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology JO - Clin Neurophysiol VL - 114 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of stimulant medications on the Electroencephalography (EEG) of children with the combined type of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) together with excessive beta activity in their EEG. METHODS: Twenty ADHD and 20 control subjects participated in this study. EEG was recorded from 21 sites during an eyes-closed resting condition and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for total power and absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands, and for the theta/alpha and theta/beta ratios. Subjects were placed on a 6-month trial of a stimulant medication and a second EEG was recorded at the end of the trial. RESULTS: The unmedicated ADHD group had greater absolute and relative beta, less absolute and relative alpha, a higher theta/alpha and a lower theta/beta ratio than the control group. In the frontal regions the ADHD group had an increase in total power, absolute theta, absolute and relative beta and the theta/beta ratio, with greater relative delta, relative theta, and absolute and relative alpha in posterior regions. With medication use, absolute beta activity and frontal total power decreased, although these changes represented a reduction in power, not a normalisation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ADHD children with excessive beta activity in their EEG are probably not hypoaroused as previously suggested, and that beta activity in these children is probably only associated with the impulsivity and/or hyperactivity aspects of the disorder, but may not necessarily be associated with inattention. SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to investigate effects of stimulant medications on the EEG of ADHD children with excessive beta activity in their EEG. SN - 1388-2457 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12948803/Effects_of_stimulant_medications_on_children_with_attention_deficit/hyperactivity_disorder_and_excessive_beta_activity_in_their_EEG_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1388245703001123 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -