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A new protocol for the in situ generation of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and unsaturated diazo compounds and its application in catalytic and asymmetric epoxidation of carbonyl compounds. Extensive studies to map out scope and limitations, and rationalization of diastereo- and enantioselectivities.
J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Sep 10; 125(36):10926-40.JA

Abstract

A variety of metalated tosylhydrazone salts derived from benzaldehyde have been prepared and were reacted with benzaldehyde in the presence of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) (20 mol %) and Rh(2)(OAc)(4) (1 mol %) to give stilbene oxide. Of the lithium, sodium, and potassium salts tested, the sodium salt was found to give the highest yield and selectivity. This study was extended to a wide variety of aromatic, heteroaromatic, aliphatic, alpha,beta-unsaturated, and acetylenic aldehydes and to ketones. On the whole, high yields of epoxides with moderate to very high diastereoselectivities were observed. A broad range of tosylhydrazone salts derived from aromatic, heteroaromatic, and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes was also examined using the same protocol in reactions with benzaldehyde, and again, good yields and high diastereoselectivities were observed in most cases. Thus, a general process for the in situ generation of diazo compounds from tosylhydrazone sodium salts has been established and applied in sulfur-ylide mediated epoxidation reactions. The chiral, camphor-derived, [2.2.1] bicyclic sulfide 7 was employed (at 5-20 mol % loading) to render the above processes asymmetric with a range of carbonyl compounds and tosylhydrazone sodium salts. Benzaldehyde tosylhydrazone sodium salt gave enantioselectivities of 91 +/- 3% ee and high levels of diastereoselectivity with a range of aldehydes. However, tosylhydrazone salts derived from a range of carbonyl compounds gave more variable selectivities. Although those salts derived from electron-rich or neutral aldehydes gave high enantioselectivities, those derived from electron-deficient or hindered aromatic aldehydes gave somewhat reduced enantioselectivities. Using alpha,beta-unsaturated hydrazones, chiral sulfide 7 gave epoxides with high diastereoselectivities, but only moderate yields were achieved (12-56%) with varying degrees of enantioselectivity. A study of solvent effects showed that, while the impact on enantioselectivity was small, the efficiency of diazo compound generation was influenced, and CH(3)CN and 1,4-dioxane emerged as the optimum solvents. A general rationalization of the factors that influence both relative and absolute stereochemistry for all of the different substrates is provided. Reversibility in formation of the betaine intermediate is an important issue in the control of diastereoselectivity. Hence, where low diastereocontrol was observed, the results have been rationalized in terms of the factors that contribute to the reduced reversion of the syn betaine back to the original starting materials. The enantioselectivity is governed by ylide conformation, facial selectivity in the ylide reaction, and, again, the degree of reversibility in betaine formation. From experimental evidence and calculations, it has been shown that sulfide 7 gives almost complete control of facial selectivity, and, hence, it is the ylide conformation and degree of reversibility that are responsible for the enantioselectivity observed. A simple test has been developed to ascertain whether the reduced enantioselectivity observed in particular cases is due to poor control in ylide conformation or due to partial reversibility in the formation of the betaine.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK. v.aggarwal@bristol.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

12952474

Citation

Aggarwal, Varinder K., et al. "A New Protocol for the in Situ Generation of Aromatic, Heteroaromatic, and Unsaturated Diazo Compounds and Its Application in Catalytic and Asymmetric Epoxidation of Carbonyl Compounds. Extensive Studies to Map Out Scope and Limitations, and Rationalization of Diastereo- and Enantioselectivities." Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 36, 2003, pp. 10926-40.
Aggarwal VK, Alonso E, Bae I, et al. A new protocol for the in situ generation of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and unsaturated diazo compounds and its application in catalytic and asymmetric epoxidation of carbonyl compounds. Extensive studies to map out scope and limitations, and rationalization of diastereo- and enantioselectivities. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125(36):10926-40.
Aggarwal, V. K., Alonso, E., Bae, I., Hynd, G., Lydon, K. M., Palmer, M. J., Patel, M., Porcelloni, M., Richardson, J., Stenson, R. A., Studley, J. R., Vasse, J. L., & Winn, C. L. (2003). A new protocol for the in situ generation of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and unsaturated diazo compounds and its application in catalytic and asymmetric epoxidation of carbonyl compounds. Extensive studies to map out scope and limitations, and rationalization of diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125(36), 10926-40.
Aggarwal VK, et al. A New Protocol for the in Situ Generation of Aromatic, Heteroaromatic, and Unsaturated Diazo Compounds and Its Application in Catalytic and Asymmetric Epoxidation of Carbonyl Compounds. Extensive Studies to Map Out Scope and Limitations, and Rationalization of Diastereo- and Enantioselectivities. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Sep 10;125(36):10926-40. PubMed PMID: 12952474.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A new protocol for the in situ generation of aromatic, heteroaromatic, and unsaturated diazo compounds and its application in catalytic and asymmetric epoxidation of carbonyl compounds. Extensive studies to map out scope and limitations, and rationalization of diastereo- and enantioselectivities. AU - Aggarwal,Varinder K, AU - Alonso,Emma, AU - Bae,Imhyuck, AU - Hynd,George, AU - Lydon,Kevin M, AU - Palmer,Matthew J, AU - Patel,Mamta, AU - Porcelloni,Marina, AU - Richardson,Jeffery, AU - Stenson,Rachel A, AU - Studley,John R, AU - Vasse,Jean-Luc, AU - Winn,Caroline L, PY - 2003/9/4/pubmed PY - 2003/9/4/medline PY - 2003/9/4/entrez SP - 10926 EP - 40 JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society JO - J Am Chem Soc VL - 125 IS - 36 N2 - A variety of metalated tosylhydrazone salts derived from benzaldehyde have been prepared and were reacted with benzaldehyde in the presence of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) (20 mol %) and Rh(2)(OAc)(4) (1 mol %) to give stilbene oxide. Of the lithium, sodium, and potassium salts tested, the sodium salt was found to give the highest yield and selectivity. This study was extended to a wide variety of aromatic, heteroaromatic, aliphatic, alpha,beta-unsaturated, and acetylenic aldehydes and to ketones. On the whole, high yields of epoxides with moderate to very high diastereoselectivities were observed. A broad range of tosylhydrazone salts derived from aromatic, heteroaromatic, and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes was also examined using the same protocol in reactions with benzaldehyde, and again, good yields and high diastereoselectivities were observed in most cases. Thus, a general process for the in situ generation of diazo compounds from tosylhydrazone sodium salts has been established and applied in sulfur-ylide mediated epoxidation reactions. The chiral, camphor-derived, [2.2.1] bicyclic sulfide 7 was employed (at 5-20 mol % loading) to render the above processes asymmetric with a range of carbonyl compounds and tosylhydrazone sodium salts. Benzaldehyde tosylhydrazone sodium salt gave enantioselectivities of 91 +/- 3% ee and high levels of diastereoselectivity with a range of aldehydes. However, tosylhydrazone salts derived from a range of carbonyl compounds gave more variable selectivities. Although those salts derived from electron-rich or neutral aldehydes gave high enantioselectivities, those derived from electron-deficient or hindered aromatic aldehydes gave somewhat reduced enantioselectivities. Using alpha,beta-unsaturated hydrazones, chiral sulfide 7 gave epoxides with high diastereoselectivities, but only moderate yields were achieved (12-56%) with varying degrees of enantioselectivity. A study of solvent effects showed that, while the impact on enantioselectivity was small, the efficiency of diazo compound generation was influenced, and CH(3)CN and 1,4-dioxane emerged as the optimum solvents. A general rationalization of the factors that influence both relative and absolute stereochemistry for all of the different substrates is provided. Reversibility in formation of the betaine intermediate is an important issue in the control of diastereoselectivity. Hence, where low diastereocontrol was observed, the results have been rationalized in terms of the factors that contribute to the reduced reversion of the syn betaine back to the original starting materials. The enantioselectivity is governed by ylide conformation, facial selectivity in the ylide reaction, and, again, the degree of reversibility in betaine formation. From experimental evidence and calculations, it has been shown that sulfide 7 gives almost complete control of facial selectivity, and, hence, it is the ylide conformation and degree of reversibility that are responsible for the enantioselectivity observed. A simple test has been developed to ascertain whether the reduced enantioselectivity observed in particular cases is due to poor control in ylide conformation or due to partial reversibility in the formation of the betaine. SN - 0002-7863 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12952474/A_new_protocol_for_the_in_situ_generation_of_aromatic_heteroaromatic_and_unsaturated_diazo_compounds_and_its_application_in_catalytic_and_asymmetric_epoxidation_of_carbonyl_compounds__Extensive_studies_to_map_out_scope_and_limitations_and_rationalization_of_diastereo__and_enantioselectivities_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/ja034606+ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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