Pharmacological properties of excitatory amino acid induced changes in extracellular calcium concentration in rat hippocampal slices.Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992; 70 Suppl:S194-205.CJ
We have studied extracellular ionic changes induced by iontophoretic application of excitatory amino acids in rat hippocampal slices. In contrast to kinetics of changes in [Ca2+]o, kinetics of changes in [K+]o, [Na+]o, [Cl-]o as well as in extracellular space size were comparable for different glutamate receptor agonists. Thus, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), quisqualate (quis), and kainate caused reductions in [Ca2+]o followed by an increase of [Ca2+]o above baseline, whereas glutamate, aspartate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and DL-homocysteic acid caused only reductions in [Ca2+]o. After blocking the NMDA receptors with ketamine and 2-amino-5- phosphonovaleric acid (2-APV), glutamate-induced decreases in [Ca2+]o were followed by an overshoot. Reduction of the transmembrane Na+ gradient by lowering [Na+]o, blocking of the Na(+)-K+ ATPase by lowering [K+]o, and application of ouabain blocked the overshoots after quis application, whereas vanadate, a blocker of the Ca(2+)-Mg2+ ATPase, had no effects. Lithium enhanced the reductions in [Ca2+]o and blocked the overshoots. Amiloride also reduced the overshoots. All organic Ca2+ entry blockers diminished reductions of [Ca2+]o but increased the overshoots. Inorganic Ca2+ antagonists had variable effects. Ni2+ had similar effects as the organic Ca2+ entry blockers while Cd2+ reduced both the [Ca2+]o decreases as well as the subsequent overshoots. Co2+ had initially a similar action as Ni2+. With prolonged application, [Ca2+]o decreases became augmented and, during wash, overshoots could no longer be elicited. We suggest that the overshoots in [Ca2+]o are due to a combined effect of extracellular space shrinkage and activation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. This would imply that NMDA receptor activation blocks extrusion of Ca2+ from the cells. We tested the hypothesis that quis-induced intracellular Ca2+ release and extrusion of Ca2+ from the cells contributed to the overshoots. Dantrolene was without effect on the quis-induced signals, while ryanodine reduced the overshoots. Caffeine on the other hand diminished the [Ca2+]o decreases with no effects on the overshoots. To test for possible second messenger routes by which NMDA receptor activation might slow Ca2+ extrusion from cells, we investigated the effects of arachidonic acid and N-monomethyl-D- arginine on the quis-induced signals. While these agents reduced decreases in [Ca2+]o, they had no clear effects on the overshoots. Thus a possible route by which NMDA receptor activation may affect Ca2+ extrusion from cells has still to be elucidated.