Patellar tracking during simulated quadriceps contraction.Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003 SepCO
The current study compared patella tracking during simulated concentric and eccentric quadriceps contractions in 12 knees from cadavers using a three-dimensional electromagnetic tracking system. The patella shifted (translated) and tilted medially during approximately the initial 22 degrees tibiofemoral flexion. The patella then shifted and tilted laterally for the remaining arc of tibiofemoral flexion (90 degrees). At 90 degrees tibiofemoral flexion, the patella had an orientation of lateral patella shift and lateral patella tilt. Patella shift was significantly more lateral between 40 degrees and 70 degrees tibiofemoral flexion during concentric quadriceps action than during eccentric contraction. Patella tilt was significantly more lateral between 45 degrees and 55 degrees tibiofemoral flexion during concentric quadriceps contraction than during eccentric action. No other significant differences were seen between the quadriceps contraction conditions. The current study supports the hypothesis that patellar instability is most likely a result of various anatomic and physiologic factors causing a failure of the extensor mechanism to deliver the patella into the femoral sulcus and that a patellar dislocation rarely would occur in a normal knee.