Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam.Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003; 34 Suppl 1:1-11.SA
This paper provides a review of surveys on soil-transmitted helminths that were done in Vietnam between 1990 and 2001. Prevalence estimates could be obtained for 29 of the 61 provinces. Extrapolating from this, it is estimated that 33.9 million people in Vietnam are infected with Ascaris (prevalence 44.4%), 17.6 million with Trichuris (prevalence 23.1%), and 21.8 million with hookworm (prevalence 28.6%). Prevalence of Ascaris and Trichuris showed a declining trend from the north to the south of the country. This is probably related to differences in climatic conditions. Hookworm prevalence is more evenly distributed throughout the country, but is concentrated in peri-urban and rural agricultural areas. Vegetable cultivation in which nightsoil is used as fertilizer is a risk factor for hookworm infection, especially among adult women. Helminth control programs should be targeted at school-age children in the northern provinces. Specific interventions are needed throughout the country for women of agricultural communities that are at risk for hookworm infection. There is clearly a need for more detailed analysis of risk factors to quantify the relative contribution of climatic, environmental, and human behavioral factors in the transmission of intestinal nematode infections in Vietnam.