[Recurrence of lithiasis after extracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous surgery, and open surgery for calculi of the upper urinary tract].Prog Urol. 1992 Jun; 2(3):396-401.PU
The safety and short-term effectiveness of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) have already been well established. However, long-term follow-up studies are essential to prove that the recurrence rate after PCNL and/or ESWL is equal or even better than that of surgery. We reviewed 57 patients treated with ESWL monotherapy, 45 patients treated by PCNL (or by PCNL combined with ESWL for complete staghorn stones) and 59 patients treated by open surgery who all had at least three years of follow-up. The overall recurrence rate for ESWL was 37% for PCNL and for open surgery 39%. ESWL, PCNL and open surgery all showed a higher rate of recurrence and persistent bacteriuria when associated with residual stones. Therefore every effort should be made to remove residual fragments following stone treatment. We conclude that because of its efficacy and low morbidity ESWL should be the treatment of choice for most of renal calculi. Complete staghorn calculi are best treated with open surgery because the complete elimination of all calculous material and the eradication of infection are achieved at a higher rate than by PCNL and ESWL.