Absorption of hydroxycinnamates in humans after high-bran cereal consumption.J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Sep 24; 51(20):6050-5.JA
Hydroxycinnamic acids are a group of phenolic compounds that exhibit a wide range of in vitro chemoprotective and antioxidant properties. Cereals containing a high proportion of the bran layers are rich in ester-linked hydroxycinnamic acids, such as ferulic and diferulic acids. The present work investigated the absorption in humans of hydroxycinnamic acids from high-bran breakfast cereal (wheat). Plasma and urine samples from six volunteers were collected before and after cereal consumption and analyzed for total hydroxycinnamic acids content after beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment both by HPLC-DAD and by LC-MS (SIM monitoring). High-bran cereal administration resulted in increased plasma ferulic and sinapic acid concentrations (maximum levels detected of approximately 200 and approximately 40 nM, respectively) with absorption peaks between 1 and 3 h. Increases of approximately 4-fold in ferulic acid and approximately 5-fold in feruloylglycine were detected in 24-h urine after consumption of the cereal. Most of the ferulic acid detected in urine and plasma was present as conjugates (feruloylglycine and/or glucuronides). Diferulic acids were undetectable. The data show that ferulic and sinapic acids are taken up in humans from dietary high bran wheat but that absorption is limited and may originate only from the free and soluble portions present in the cereal.