Regulation of guinea pig plasma low density lipoprotein kinetics by dietary fat saturation.J Lipid Res. 1992 Jan; 33(1):97-109.JL
Dietary fat saturation has been shown to affect hepatic apoB/E receptor expression and to modify low density lipoprotein (LDL) composition and density in guinea pigs. The current studies were designed to investigate the independent and interactive effects of dietary fat saturation alterations in apoB/E receptor expression and LDL composition on in vivo LDL turnover kinetics, both receptor-mediated and receptor-independent. Guinea pigs were fed semi-purified diets containing 15% fat, either polyunsaturated corn oil (CO), monounsaturated olive oil (OL), or saturated lard, and injected with radioiodinated LDL isolated from animals fed the homologous diet. Blood samples were obtained over 33 h to determine apoLDL fractional catabolic rates (FCR) and flux rates. Compared to animals fed OL- or lard-based diets, intake of the CO-based diet resulted in a 50% decrease in LDL apoB pool size associated with a twofold increase in receptor-mediated FCR (P less than 0.001) and a 28% decrease in flux rate (P less than 0.05). Maximal LDL binding capacity of hepatic apoB/E receptors, determined in vitro, was twofold higher for animals fed the CO-based diet compared to guinea pigs fed the OL- and lard-based diets (P less than 0.01). There was a significant correlation between hepatic apoB/E receptor number and in vivo receptor-mediated LDL FCR (r = 0.987). Significant differences in LDL turnover were related to the source of LDL. When injected into animals fed a nonpurified commercial diet, the smaller, cholesteryl ester-depleted LDL isolated from animals fed the CO-based diet had a twofold higher FCR compared to larger LDLs from guinea pigs fed the OL- and lard-based diets, which had similar turnover rates. When LDL from animals fed the commercial diet was radiolabeled and injected into animals fed the three types of dietary fat, significant differences in LDL turnover were observed in the order CO greater than lard greater than OL, suggesting that intravascular processing and tissue uptake of the smaller LDL from animals fed the commercial diet varies depending on the dietary fat saturation fed to the recipient animals. These studies demonstrate that guinea pigs fed polyunsaturated fat diets lower plasma LDL levels in part by an increase in apoB/E receptor-mediated fractional LDL turnover and a decrease in apoLDL flux. In addition, fat saturation alters LDL composition and size which independently affect LDL turnover rates in vivo.