Opposing influences of protein kinase activities on neurite outgrowth in human neuroblastoma cells: initiation by kinase A and restriction by kinase C.J Neurosci Res. 1992 Nov; 33(3):398-407.JN
The respective roles of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) and protein kinase C (PKC) in the early stages of neurite outgrowth were examined in SH-SY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Forskolin or dbcAMP, agents that increase intracellular cAMP levels, and intracellular delivery of PKA catalytic subunit induced neurite outgrowth. The PKA inhibitor, N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA 1004), prevented the increases, and decreased further the percentage of cells possessing short, filopodia-like neurites in the absence of inducers. In contrast to effects on PKA activation, PKC activation by 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) reduced the percentage of filopodia-like neurites elaborated by otherwise untreated cells, and prevented neurite outgrowth induced by PKA activators. PKC inhibitors 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H7), staurosporine, and sphingosine induced neurite outgrowth. Neurites induced by PKA activation contained higher levels of tubulin immunoreactivity than those induced by PKC inhibition. Furthermore, PKA-induced neurites rapidly retracted in the presence of colchicine, while those elaborated following PKC inhibition were more resistant. These data suggest that neurites elaborated in response to PKA activation are dependent upon microtubule polymerization, and that neurite induction following PKC inhibition is mediated by a different mechanism. PKA activators and PKC inhibitors exerted additive effects on neurite outgrowth, suggesting that the distinct pathways regulated by these two kinases function cooperatively during neuritogenesis.