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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.
Clin Ther. 1992 Mar-Apr; 14(2):138-47.CT

Abstract

It has been estimated that 30% to 70% of children who are diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will continue to show symptoms of the condition as adults. Since the prevalence of ADHD among school children may be 3% or more, its prevalence among adults may be 1% or 2%. The third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (1987) of the American Psychiatric Association lists three essential features for the diagnosis of ADHD: "developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity." Other conditions associated with ADHD in adults include learning disabilities (or their sequelae), general anxiety disorder, drug and alcohol abuse, and dysthymic and cyclothymic disorders. Strong correlations have been found between ADHD and oppositional defiant and conduct disorders in children and an increased risk for antisocial disorders in adults. A combination of genetic, biologic, and environmental factors appears to be implicated in the etiology of ADHD. The management of adult ADHD requires a multimodal approach. The patient needs to be informed of the cause of his or her impulsive and often self-destructive behavior. Many patients will have learning difficulties that require evaluation and remediation by specialists in learning disabilities. Psychotherapy can help the patients resolve disturbances in perceptions of self and others and family therapy can address difficulties in the adult's relationships with family members. Pharmacotherapy of adult ADHD includes the use of central nervous system stimulants, such as methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and pemoline, of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desimipramine, and of other antihypertensive, analgesic, and antimanic drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, New York, New York.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1351794

Citation

Bellak, L, and R B. Black. "Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults." Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 2, 1992, pp. 138-47.
Bellak L, Black RB. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Clin Ther. 1992;14(2):138-47.
Bellak, L., & Black, R. B. (1992). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Clinical Therapeutics, 14(2), 138-47.
Bellak L, Black RB. Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults. Clin Ther. 1992 Mar-Apr;14(2):138-47. PubMed PMID: 1351794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. AU - Bellak,L, AU - Black,R B, PY - 1992/3/1/pubmed PY - 1992/3/1/medline PY - 1992/3/1/entrez SP - 138 EP - 47 JF - Clinical therapeutics JO - Clin Ther VL - 14 IS - 2 N2 - It has been estimated that 30% to 70% of children who are diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will continue to show symptoms of the condition as adults. Since the prevalence of ADHD among school children may be 3% or more, its prevalence among adults may be 1% or 2%. The third revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (1987) of the American Psychiatric Association lists three essential features for the diagnosis of ADHD: "developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity." Other conditions associated with ADHD in adults include learning disabilities (or their sequelae), general anxiety disorder, drug and alcohol abuse, and dysthymic and cyclothymic disorders. Strong correlations have been found between ADHD and oppositional defiant and conduct disorders in children and an increased risk for antisocial disorders in adults. A combination of genetic, biologic, and environmental factors appears to be implicated in the etiology of ADHD. The management of adult ADHD requires a multimodal approach. The patient needs to be informed of the cause of his or her impulsive and often self-destructive behavior. Many patients will have learning difficulties that require evaluation and remediation by specialists in learning disabilities. Psychotherapy can help the patients resolve disturbances in perceptions of self and others and family therapy can address difficulties in the adult's relationships with family members. Pharmacotherapy of adult ADHD includes the use of central nervous system stimulants, such as methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and pemoline, of the tricyclic antidepressants imipramine and desimipramine, and of other antihypertensive, analgesic, and antimanic drugs. SN - 0149-2918 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1351794/Attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_in_adults_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/659 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -