Safety and immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5-9-year-old Indonesian children.Lancet. 1992 Sep 19; 340(8821):689-94.Lct
Oral vaccines offer great promise as public-health measures to prevent disease in less-developed countries. CVD 103-HgR, a genetically engineered, attenuated, Vibrio cholerae O1 strain has proved effective in industrialised countries. We have assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and excretion of this live cholera vaccine in children in north Jakarta, Indonesia. 412 children aged 5-9 years received single doses of 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7), 5 x 10(8), 5 x 10(9), or 1 x 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) of CVD 103-HgR or placebo (5 x 10(8) inactivated Escherichia coli K-12) with buffer. All doses were well tolerated. The 5 x 10(8) CFU dose, which is highly immunogenic in subjects in industrialised countries (greater than 90% seroconversion), elicited seroconversions of vibriocidal antibody in only 16% of Indonesian children. By contrast, a single 5 x 10(9) CFU dose of vaccine resulted in high rates (75% and 87%) of seroconversion with two different batches of vaccine. A batch prepared with a centrifugation step gave significantly higher geometric mean titres (16-fold increase over baseline) than did a batch in which there was a filtration step between fermentation and lyophilisation (10-fold increase over baseline). At a 5 x 10(9) CFU dose, CVD 103-HgR is well tolerated and highly immunogenic in Indonesian children and should therefore be further investigated for use as a one-dose live oral cholera vaccine in developing countries.