Two-way cross-protection between West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses in bonnet macaques.Acta Virol. 1992 May; 36(3):277-83.AV
Cross-protection between Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile (WN) viruses was tested in bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) immunized either with JE virus (JEV) or WN virus (WNV). JEV immunized monkeys were challenged by intranasal (i.n.) route with WNV and vice versa. Four control unimmunized monkeys were similarly infected either with WNV or JEV. Two of three control monkeys infected with WNV, developed paralysis followed by death. Virus was recovered from the central nervous system (CNS) of the both dead control monkeys and the histopathological examination of CNS revealed changes suggestive of viral encephalitis. The control monkey infected with JEV developed encephalitis and the virus was recovered from the blood and CNS. All the 3 JEV-immunized monkeys withstood WNV challenge, whereas only 2 of the 5 WNV immunized monkeys withstood the challenge with JEV. Out of 3 WNV-immunized monkeys surviving challenge with JEV, 2 revealed symptoms suggestive of mild encephalitis followed by complete recovery. The third monkey died on the 60th day post-infection (p.i.) without any symptoms and virus was recovered only from the olfactory lobe. These studies indicate that the immunization with JEV protects the bonnet macaques against WNV, whereas the WNV immunization only reduces the severity of the disease due to JEV.