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Clarithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential.
Drugs. 1992 Jul; 44(1):117-64.D

Abstract

Clarithromycin is an acid-stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin. It has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, similar to that of erythromycin and inhibits a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, atypical pathogens and some anaerobes. Significantly, clarithromycin demonstrates greater in vitro activity than erythromycin against certain pathogens including Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies--chelonae and--abscessus, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium avium complex, Legionella spp. and, when combined with its 14-hydroxy metabolite, against Haemophilus influenzae. However, bacterial strains resistant to erythromycin are also generally resistant to clarithromycin. The antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin appears to be enhanced by the formation in vivo of the microbiologically active 14-hydroxy metabolite. In combination, additive or synergistic activity against a variety of pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Legionella species (principally Legionella pneumophila) and various staphylococci and streptococci has been demonstrated. Clarithromycin has a superior pharmacokinetic profile to that of erythromycin, allowing the benefits of twice daily administration with the potential for increased compliance among outpatients where a more frequent regimen for erythromycin might otherwise be indicated. The clinical efficacy of clarithromycin has been confirmed in the treatment of infections of the lower and upper respiratory tracts (including those associated with atypical pathogens), skin/soft tissues, and in paediatrics. Clarithromycin was as effective as erythromycin and other appropriate drugs including beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins) in some of the above infections. A most promising indication for clarithromycin appears to be in the treatment of immunocompromised patients infected with M. avium complex, M. chelonae sp. and Toxoplasma sp. Small initial trials in this setting reveal clarithromycin alone or in combination with other antimicrobials to be effective in the eradication or amelioration of these infections. Noncomparative studies have provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of clarithromycin in the treatment of infections of the urogenital tract, oromaxillofacial and ophthalmic areas. However, the promising in vitro and preliminary in vivo activity of clarithromycin against Mycobacterium leprae and Helicobacter pylori warrant further clinical trials to assess its efficacy in patients with these infections. Despite the improved pharmacokinetic profile and in vitro antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin over erythromycin, comparative studies of patients with community-acquired infections reveal the 2 drugs to be of equivalent efficacy. However, clarithromycin demonstrates greater tolerability, principally by inducing fewer gastrointestinal disturbances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1379907

Citation

Peters, D H., and S P. Clissold. "Clarithromycin. a Review of Its Antimicrobial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Potential." Drugs, vol. 44, no. 1, 1992, pp. 117-64.
Peters DH, Clissold SP. Clarithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential. Drugs. 1992;44(1):117-64.
Peters, D. H., & Clissold, S. P. (1992). Clarithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential. Drugs, 44(1), 117-64.
Peters DH, Clissold SP. Clarithromycin. a Review of Its Antimicrobial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Therapeutic Potential. Drugs. 1992;44(1):117-64. PubMed PMID: 1379907.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clarithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential. AU - Peters,D H, AU - Clissold,S P, PY - 1992/7/1/pubmed PY - 1992/7/1/medline PY - 1992/7/1/entrez SP - 117 EP - 64 JF - Drugs JO - Drugs VL - 44 IS - 1 N2 - Clarithromycin is an acid-stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin. It has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, similar to that of erythromycin and inhibits a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, atypical pathogens and some anaerobes. Significantly, clarithromycin demonstrates greater in vitro activity than erythromycin against certain pathogens including Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies--chelonae and--abscessus, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium avium complex, Legionella spp. and, when combined with its 14-hydroxy metabolite, against Haemophilus influenzae. However, bacterial strains resistant to erythromycin are also generally resistant to clarithromycin. The antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin appears to be enhanced by the formation in vivo of the microbiologically active 14-hydroxy metabolite. In combination, additive or synergistic activity against a variety of pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Legionella species (principally Legionella pneumophila) and various staphylococci and streptococci has been demonstrated. Clarithromycin has a superior pharmacokinetic profile to that of erythromycin, allowing the benefits of twice daily administration with the potential for increased compliance among outpatients where a more frequent regimen for erythromycin might otherwise be indicated. The clinical efficacy of clarithromycin has been confirmed in the treatment of infections of the lower and upper respiratory tracts (including those associated with atypical pathogens), skin/soft tissues, and in paediatrics. Clarithromycin was as effective as erythromycin and other appropriate drugs including beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins) in some of the above infections. A most promising indication for clarithromycin appears to be in the treatment of immunocompromised patients infected with M. avium complex, M. chelonae sp. and Toxoplasma sp. Small initial trials in this setting reveal clarithromycin alone or in combination with other antimicrobials to be effective in the eradication or amelioration of these infections. Noncomparative studies have provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of clarithromycin in the treatment of infections of the urogenital tract, oromaxillofacial and ophthalmic areas. However, the promising in vitro and preliminary in vivo activity of clarithromycin against Mycobacterium leprae and Helicobacter pylori warrant further clinical trials to assess its efficacy in patients with these infections. Despite the improved pharmacokinetic profile and in vitro antimicrobial activity of clarithromycin over erythromycin, comparative studies of patients with community-acquired infections reveal the 2 drugs to be of equivalent efficacy. However, clarithromycin demonstrates greater tolerability, principally by inducing fewer gastrointestinal disturbances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0012-6667 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1379907/Clarithromycin__A_review_of_its_antimicrobial_activity_pharmacokinetic_properties_and_therapeutic_potential_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199244010-00009 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -