Effects of tamoxifen adjuvant therapy and a low-fat diet on serum binding proteins and estradiol bioavailability in postmenopausal breast cancer patients.Cancer Res. 1992 Oct 01; 52(19):5386-90.CR
Serum was collected at intervals from postmenopausal breast cancer patients to determine the effects of tamoxifen adjuvant therapy and a low-fat dietary intervention, alone and in combination, on sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and circulating estradiol bioavailability. Serum corticosteroid-binding globulin and follicle-stimulating hormone were also assayed as indicators of patient compliance to tamoxifen therapy. The immunoreactive SHBG concentration was higher (P less than 0.001) in 22 patients who had been treated with tamoxifen for 6-36 weeks when first sampled, compared with 27 who were not receiving tamoxifen therapy. Tamoxifen also produced a reduction in the percentage non-protein-bound estradiol (P less than 0.001) and percentage albumin-bound estradiol (P less than 0.01), the two biologically available fractions, and a corresponding increase in the percentage SHBG-bound estradiol (P less than 0.01). A longitudinal study of 7 patients showed significant reductions in the percentage of albumin-bound estradiol and an increased percentage of SHBG-bound estradiol, after 3-6 months of tamoxifen; after 12-18 months there was also a significant decrease in the non-protein-bound estradiol fraction. We conclude that in postmenopausal breast cancer patients the redistribution of circulating estradiol, with reduced bioavailability, provides an additional mechanism to those demonstrated previously for the therapeutic activity of tamoxifen. Another 12 patients receiving tamoxifen and 8 who were not were followed for 6-12 months on a low-fat diet (fat comprised 20% of the total calories). The dietary intervention had no effect on the serum SHBG concentration or the estradiol distribution. Although tamoxifen increased the serum corticosteroid-binding globulin and partially suppressed the follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, the responses obtained were less consistent compared with those of the SHBG levels.