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Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: comparison of a two-color technique with a standard immunoperoxidase assay.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992 Nov; 7(5):531-41.AJ

Abstract

Characterization of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar fluid has provided insight into the pathogenesis of many pulmonary diseases. Identification of lymphocyte phenotypes has become highly successful due to development of specific monoclonal antibodies and reliable methods for detecting labeled cells such as flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemistry. FCM permits rapid screening of many cells, but this analysis may be confounded by heterogeneity in the size and granularity of the cells being evaluated. Such heterogeneity may lead to exclusion of cells of interest and inclusion of unwanted cells. Often peripheral blood leukocytes are used to define the gate for lung lymphocytes, but this gate may be inappropriate due to considerable variation in size and granularity of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Here we report an alternative method for generating a gate which employed fluorescence and side scatter signals to analyze lymphocyte subsets in BAL fluid by FCM. This gating technique avoids the pitfalls inherent in using the conventional lymphocyte gate to analyze lung cells. To validate this approach, we compared the results generated by this gate and those from the conventional forward/side light scatter gate to results derived from an immunocytochemical technique (ABC) that has been extensively employed in our laboratory to identify lymphocyte subsets in blood and lavage fluid. FCM tended to underestimate the proportions of T-cell subsets compared with ABC when the conventional gate was used. Counting only cells that stained with fluorescein-conjugated anti-CD45 antibody and that had side scatter properties of lymphocytes, however, resulted in excellent agreement between FCM and ABC. It appears that the CD45+/side scatter gate includes the vast majority of lymphocytes in BAL fluid while excluding most of the nonlymphoid cells that contaminate the conventional gate. It was this latter group of cells, and erythrocytes in particular, that led to the artificially low values for lymphocyte phenotypes in BAL fluid by FCM when the conventional lymphocyte gate was used. Although erythrocytes in BAL fluid may be eliminated by hypotonic lysis, this may also result in contamination of the conventional lymphocyte gate with nuclear debris and particulates from macrophages. Despite these advantages, the fluorescence/side scatter gate may not always be optimal for the evaluation of T lymphocytes if BAL fluid contains CD45+, nonlymphoid cells with low side light scatter. In these instances, additional antibodies such as anti-CD14 and anti-CD11 may be employed to determine the size of contaminant monocytic cells and neutrophils.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1419029

Citation

Dauber, J H., et al. "Flow Cytometric Analysis of Lymphocyte Phenotypes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Comparison of a Two-color Technique With a Standard Immunoperoxidase Assay." American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 7, no. 5, 1992, pp. 531-41.
Dauber JH, Wagner M, Brunsvold S, et al. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: comparison of a two-color technique with a standard immunoperoxidase assay. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992;7(5):531-41.
Dauber, J. H., Wagner, M., Brunsvold, S., Paradis, I. L., Ernst, L. A., & Waggoner, A. (1992). Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: comparison of a two-color technique with a standard immunoperoxidase assay. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 7(5), 531-41.
Dauber JH, et al. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Lymphocyte Phenotypes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Comparison of a Two-color Technique With a Standard Immunoperoxidase Assay. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1992;7(5):531-41. PubMed PMID: 1419029.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte phenotypes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: comparison of a two-color technique with a standard immunoperoxidase assay. AU - Dauber,J H, AU - Wagner,M, AU - Brunsvold,S, AU - Paradis,I L, AU - Ernst,L A, AU - Waggoner,A, PY - 1992/11/1/pubmed PY - 1992/11/1/medline PY - 1992/11/1/entrez SP - 531 EP - 41 JF - American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology JO - Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol VL - 7 IS - 5 N2 - Characterization of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar fluid has provided insight into the pathogenesis of many pulmonary diseases. Identification of lymphocyte phenotypes has become highly successful due to development of specific monoclonal antibodies and reliable methods for detecting labeled cells such as flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemistry. FCM permits rapid screening of many cells, but this analysis may be confounded by heterogeneity in the size and granularity of the cells being evaluated. Such heterogeneity may lead to exclusion of cells of interest and inclusion of unwanted cells. Often peripheral blood leukocytes are used to define the gate for lung lymphocytes, but this gate may be inappropriate due to considerable variation in size and granularity of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Here we report an alternative method for generating a gate which employed fluorescence and side scatter signals to analyze lymphocyte subsets in BAL fluid by FCM. This gating technique avoids the pitfalls inherent in using the conventional lymphocyte gate to analyze lung cells. To validate this approach, we compared the results generated by this gate and those from the conventional forward/side light scatter gate to results derived from an immunocytochemical technique (ABC) that has been extensively employed in our laboratory to identify lymphocyte subsets in blood and lavage fluid. FCM tended to underestimate the proportions of T-cell subsets compared with ABC when the conventional gate was used. Counting only cells that stained with fluorescein-conjugated anti-CD45 antibody and that had side scatter properties of lymphocytes, however, resulted in excellent agreement between FCM and ABC. It appears that the CD45+/side scatter gate includes the vast majority of lymphocytes in BAL fluid while excluding most of the nonlymphoid cells that contaminate the conventional gate. It was this latter group of cells, and erythrocytes in particular, that led to the artificially low values for lymphocyte phenotypes in BAL fluid by FCM when the conventional lymphocyte gate was used. Although erythrocytes in BAL fluid may be eliminated by hypotonic lysis, this may also result in contamination of the conventional lymphocyte gate with nuclear debris and particulates from macrophages. Despite these advantages, the fluorescence/side scatter gate may not always be optimal for the evaluation of T lymphocytes if BAL fluid contains CD45+, nonlymphoid cells with low side light scatter. In these instances, additional antibodies such as anti-CD14 and anti-CD11 may be employed to determine the size of contaminant monocytic cells and neutrophils.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 1044-1549 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1419029/Flow_cytometric_analysis_of_lymphocyte_phenotypes_in_bronchoalveolar_lavage_fluid:_comparison_of_a_two_color_technique_with_a_standard_immunoperoxidase_assay_ L2 - https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1165/ajrcmb/7.5.531?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -