Reversible contraception for the woman over 35 years of age.Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Dec; 4(6):891-6.CO
Methods of reversible contraception, oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, and Norplant (systemic progestin-only contraceptive; Wyeth-Ayerst, Radnor, PA), can be used for women over 35 years of age. Oral contraceptive formulations are safe and effective for healthy women up to the age of menopause. Oral contraceptives in women who do not smoke cigarettes do not result in a significant increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The incidence of breast cancer is not increased in women who have used oral contraceptives. A slight increase was found in younger women who had been on oral contraceptives based on a reanalysis of the contraceptive and steroid hormone study of the Centers for Disease Control. A reduction in the incidence of ovarian epithelial neoplasia by 40% was found in three European case-control studies. Two intrauterine devices are currently available on the US market: Paragard (GynoPharma, Somerville, NJ) and Progestasert (Alza Corp., Palo Alto, CA). Both of these provide highly effective contraception. A World Health Organization prospective randomized study found that there was an increase in pelvic inflammatory disease rates in the first 20 days after intrauterine device insertion. The intrauterine device itself did not increase the pelvic inflammatory disease incidence rates. The Norplant system exerts its contraceptive action through ovulation inhibition and alteration of cervical mucus. The major consumer complaint is irregular or prolonged uterine bleeding, which can be controlled by oral estrogen.