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Q fever as a biological weapon.
Semin Respir Infect. 2003 Sep; 18(3):183-95.SR

Abstract

Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a unique intracellular coccobacillus, adapted to live within the phagolysosomes of macrophages and monocytes. It is highly infectious, with as little as one organism needed to cause clinical infection, making it an attractive organism for use in biowarfare. Despite its high infectivity, it has low virulence, and most patients undergo only asymptomatic seroconversion. Acute clinical manifestations are a nonspecific febrile illness, pneumonia, hepatitis, and neurologic abnormalities ranging from headache to meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever can result in endocarditis, hepatitis, or a chronic fatigue syndrome. Diagnosis usually is made by serology because culture of the highly contagious organism is potentially hazardous. Tetracyclines are the antibiotics of choice. When individualized therapy is possible, a 14- to 21-day course of doxycycline usually is used. In a mass casualty situation, a 5- to 7-day course of doxycycline is recommended, both for therapy and prophylaxis. For chronic infections such as endocarditis, 18 months of doxycycline supplemented with hydroxychloroquine is currently the best therapy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA 95128, USA. Frank.Kagawa@hhs.co.santa-clara.ca.usNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14505280

Citation

Kagawa, Frank T., et al. "Q Fever as a Biological Weapon." Seminars in Respiratory Infections, vol. 18, no. 3, 2003, pp. 183-95.
Kagawa FT, Wehner JH, Mohindra V. Q fever as a biological weapon. Semin Respir Infect. 2003;18(3):183-95.
Kagawa, F. T., Wehner, J. H., & Mohindra, V. (2003). Q fever as a biological weapon. Seminars in Respiratory Infections, 18(3), 183-95.
Kagawa FT, Wehner JH, Mohindra V. Q Fever as a Biological Weapon. Semin Respir Infect. 2003;18(3):183-95. PubMed PMID: 14505280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Q fever as a biological weapon. AU - Kagawa,Frank T, AU - Wehner,John H, AU - Mohindra,Vibha, PY - 2003/9/25/pubmed PY - 2003/12/6/medline PY - 2003/9/25/entrez SP - 183 EP - 95 JF - Seminars in respiratory infections JO - Semin Respir Infect VL - 18 IS - 3 N2 - Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a unique intracellular coccobacillus, adapted to live within the phagolysosomes of macrophages and monocytes. It is highly infectious, with as little as one organism needed to cause clinical infection, making it an attractive organism for use in biowarfare. Despite its high infectivity, it has low virulence, and most patients undergo only asymptomatic seroconversion. Acute clinical manifestations are a nonspecific febrile illness, pneumonia, hepatitis, and neurologic abnormalities ranging from headache to meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever can result in endocarditis, hepatitis, or a chronic fatigue syndrome. Diagnosis usually is made by serology because culture of the highly contagious organism is potentially hazardous. Tetracyclines are the antibiotics of choice. When individualized therapy is possible, a 14- to 21-day course of doxycycline usually is used. In a mass casualty situation, a 5- to 7-day course of doxycycline is recommended, both for therapy and prophylaxis. For chronic infections such as endocarditis, 18 months of doxycycline supplemented with hydroxychloroquine is currently the best therapy. SN - 0882-0546 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14505280/Q_fever_as_a_biological_weapon_ L2 - https://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/6127 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -