Comparison of the ecotoxicological impact of the triazines Irgarol 1051 and atrazine on microalgal cultures and natural microalgal communities in Lake Geneva.Chemosphere. 2003 Dec; 53(8):935-44.C
The antifouling herbicide Irgarol 1051 has been detected in recent years in numerous estuaries, marinas, harbors and coastal areas, and in some harbors on Lake Geneva, but so far only a few studies have investigated the ecotoxicological effects of this compound on microalgae. The purpose of this study was to assess the ecotoxicological impact of Irgarol 1051 on the algal communities of Lake Geneva, and to compare its phytotoxicity to that of the common triazine herbicide, atrazine. We investigated the response of phytoplanktonic and periphytonic algal communities and single-species isolates collected from the lake, to the PS II inhibitor Irgarol 1051 (growth, proxy of photosynthetic activity and community structure). A short-term bioassay was developed based on in vivo fluorescence, together with nanocosm experiments with natural algal communities, and single-species tests on algal strains isolated from the lake. The toxicity of Irgarol 1051 towards periphyton and phytoplankton was shown to be higher than that of atrazine. Indications of the tolerance induced by this triazine in the algal communities of Lake Geneva, suggests that even at the levels of contamination reported in some parts of the lake, Irgarol 1051 is already exerting selection pressure. Information about sensitivities, selection and tolerance from laboratory experiments are used to explain the observations in natural microalgal communities from the lake.