Pancreatic carcinoma in carriers of a specific 19 base pair deletion of CDKN2A/p16 (p16-leiden).Clin Cancer Res 2003; 9(10 Pt 1):3598-605CC
The purpose is to document the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) in carriers of a specific p16-Leiden mutation (a 19-bp deletion in exon 2 of the CDKN2A gene).
Clinical data and paraffin embedded tissue were obtained from 12 patients of p16-Leiden-positive families with PC. Because of the known 19-bp germ-line deletion, we could specifically analyze the genotype of the wild-type allele for loss of heterozygosity. K-ras codon 12 mutations were determined and immunohistochemical testing for p16, Tp53, Smad4, and cyclooxygenase 2 was performed.
The average age of subjects that developed PC (8 males) was 58 years (range, 43-74 years). Histology was considered as conventional ductal adenocarcinoma in 11 of 12 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (1 of 12). The carcinomas were located in the head (10 of 12), corpus (1 of 12), and tail (1 of 12) of the pancreas. The specific p16-Leiden mutation was confirmed in the tissue of all subjects. Loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele was present in 2 of 7 tumors analyzed. Immunostaining for p16 was negative in 10 of 10. Tp53 mutations were detected in 5 of 12. Smad4 was negative in 5 of 12 and cyclooxygenase 2 was overexpressed in 11 of 12. K-ras codon 12 mutations were present in 9 of 10 and in three precursor lesions even before abrogation of p16 protein expression was seen (one of three).
The p16-Leiden deletion was associated with progression toward conventional ductal adenocarcinomas in all cases but one. Our observations might support the feasibility of early diagnosis of PC in p16-Leiden mutation carriers and might also indicate that chemoprevention needs consideration.