Activities of xanthine oxidoreductase and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues of diabetic rats.J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Sep; 142(3):172-7.JL
Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic constituent in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in oxidative stress related to xanthine oxidoreductase occurs in diabetes. Liver, brain, heart, and kidney xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), and nitrite levels were measured in control and early and late diabetic rat models. Although diabetes had no impact on liver XO and XDH activity, XDH activity in heart, kidney, and brain was significantly greater in late diabetic rats than in controls. Selenium glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was found to be lower in the liver, brain, kidney, and heart of late diabetic rats than in controls. The measured decrease in selenium GPx activity was also observed in early diabetic heart, kidney, and brain. No significant change was observed in liver, brain, and kidney copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) activity in early and late diabetic rat models compared with that in controls, whereas heart Cu/Zn SOD activity was significantly decreased in both early and late diabetic rats. Liver and brain catalase activity remained similar among the different experimental groups, whereas increased heart and kidney catalase activity was observed in both early and late diabetic rats. Liver, kidney, and brain nitrite levels were found to be increased in early diabetic rat models compared with those in controls. These data suggest that the increased XDH and decreased selenium GPx activity observed in the later stages of diabetes leads to enhanced oxidative stress in the heart, kidney, and brain, resulting in secondary organ damage associated with the disease.