[Genotoxic and ecotoxic effects of urban waste water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite or peracetic acid].Ann Ig. 2003 Jul-Aug; 15(4):277-302.AI
Genotoxic and ecotoxicologic effects of urban wastewater disinfected with sodium hypochlorite or peracetic acid were analyzed. The formation of genotoxic species was studied by determining clastogenic and mutagenic activity of aqueous samples and their extracts with in vivo and in vitro tests, respectively. In particular, we have applied citogenetic tests to Allium cepa roots and Tradescantia inflorescence (Allium cepa test and Tradescantia/micronuclei test) and reversion test to Salmonella typhimurium according to the microsuspension procedure (Kado test). The latter is the method of choice for the analysis of complex matrices due to its high sensitivity and specificity. The mutagenic activity of disinfected effluents was similar to the corresponding untreated wastewater both sampled in four different periods. Therefore, the disinfection process did not seem to contribute to aquatic mutagenicity in the examined range of biocide concentration. The potential toxicity of disinfected wastewater for aquatic organisms was evaluated using Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of peracetic acid in sewage was 0.4 mg/L (24 h E(L)C50). By comparing this value with peracetic acid concentrations detected in effluents from a pilot plant it is expected that treated wastewater would show acute toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Dissociation compounds (hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid) and possible by-products of peracetic acid did not seem to contribute significantly to the toxicity of sewage treated with peracetic acid.