Dietary galactooligosaccharides affect ileal and total-tract nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial concentrations, and ileal fermentative characteristics of growing pigs.J Anim Sci. 2003 Oct; 81(10):2535-45.JA
The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary galactooligosaccharide (Gal OS) addition on swine nutrient digestibility, ileal and fecal bacterial populations, and ileal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and to determine their impact on ileal fermentative characteristics in vitro. Twelve T-cannulated pigs (BW = 25 kg) were fed a diet free of Gal OS for 21 d. On d 22, ileal digesta samples were collected for an in vitro fermentation experiment (Exp. 1). Substrates included: raffinose/stachyose combination (R + S), soy solubles (SS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS). Also included were the non-OS components of SS and TOS. Nine pigs (three donors per treatment) served as ileal effluent donors. Each substrate was fermented in vitro for 6 h, and pH and SCFA and gas production were determined. Pigs then were allotted to three treatments: a Gal OS-free control diet and the control diet with either 3.5% added Gal OS from SS or TOS. Diets, feces, and digesta samples collected weekly for 6 wk on d 6 (feces) and 7 (digesta) were analyzed for DM, OM, CP, and chromic oxide concentrations. Feces and ileal digesta were analyzed for bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations. Ileal digesta samples were analyzed for SCFA. On d 64, a second in vitro fermentation experiment (Exp. 2) was conducted using ileal effluent from three pigs per treatment and the same substrates used in Exp. 1. In vivo results showed that ileal and total tract DM and OM digestion were decreased (P < 0.05) by addition of both SS and TOS to the diet. Ileal and total-tract N digestibilities were decreased (P < 0.05) by dietary addition of SS. Fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were increased (P < 0.05) by addition of SS and TOS to the diet. Ileal propionate and butyrate concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing both sources of Gal OS. In vitro results showed that fermentation data were not affected by donor animal adaptation to treatment. For both in vitro experiments, gas and SCFA production were higher (P < 0.05) for R + S than for SS or TOS. Fermentation of R + S resulted in a higher pH (P < 0.05) than did SS or TOS. Fermentation of non-OS components of SS and TOS resulted in more (P < 0.05) gas and SCFA production, and pH values that did not differ (P > 0.05) compared to SS and TOS. The Gal OS used in this study were prebiotics, increasing beneficial bacteria in vivo and SCFA concentrations both in vivo and in vitro.