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Targeted liposomal c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth and metastases in human melanoma models.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 01; 9(12):4595-605.CC

Abstract

PURPOSE

Melanoma is a highly malignant and increasingly common tumor. Because the cure rate of metastatic melanoma by conventional treatment is very low, new therapeutic approaches are needed. We previously reported that coated cationic liposomes (CCL) targeted with a monoclonal antibody against the disialoganglioside (GD(2)) and containing c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODNs) resulted in a selective inhibition of the proliferation of GD(2)-positive neuroblastoma cells in vitro.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Here, we tested the in vivo antitumor effects of this novel antisense liposomal formulation by targeting the c-myc oncogene on melanoma, a neuroectodermal tumor sharing with neuroblastoma the expression of GD(2).

RESULTS

Our methods produced GD(2)-targeted liposomes that stably entrapped 90% of added c-myc asODNs. These liposomes showed a selective binding for GD(2)-positive melanoma cells in vitro. Melanoma cell proliferation was inhibited to a greater extent by GD(2)-targeted liposomes containing c-myc asODNs (aGD(2)-CCL-myc-as) than by nontargeted liposomes or free asODNs. The pharmacokinetic results obtained after i.v. injection of [(3)H]-myc-asODNs, free or encapsulated in nontargeted CCLs or GD(2)-targeted CCLs, showed that free c-myc-asODNs were rapidly cleared, with less than 10% of the injected dose remaining in blood at 30 min after injection. c-myc-asODNs encapsulated within either CCL or aGD(2)-CCL demonstrated a more favorable profile in blood, with about 20% of the injected dose of each preparation remaining in vivo at 24 h after injection. In an in vivo melanoma experimental metastatic model, aGD(2)-CCL-myc-as, at a total dose of only 10 mg of asODN per kilogram, significantly inhibited the development of microscopic metastases in the lung compared with animals treated with myc-asODNs, free or entrapped in nontargeted liposomes, or aGD(2)-CCL encapsulating scrambled asODNs (P < 0.01). Moreover, mice bearing established s.c. human melanoma xenografts treated with aGD(2)-CCL-myc-as exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth and increased survival (P < 0.01 versus control mice). The mechanism for the antitumor effects appears to be down-regulation of the expression of the c-myc protein and interruption of c-myc-mediated signaling: induction of p53 and inhibition of Bcl-2 proteins, leading to extensive tumor cell apoptosis.

CONCLUSION

These results suggest that inhibition of c-myc proto-oncogene by GD(2)-targeted antisense therapy could provide an effective approach for the treatment of melanoma in an adjuvant setting.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Differentiation Therapy Unit, Laboratory of Oncology, G. Gaslini Children's Hospital, 16148 Genoa, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14555535

Citation

Pastorino, Fabio, et al. "Targeted Liposomal C-myc Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit Tumor Growth and Metastases in Human Melanoma Models." Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 12, 2003, pp. 4595-605.
Pastorino F, Brignole C, Marimpietri D, et al. Targeted liposomal c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth and metastases in human melanoma models. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(12):4595-605.
Pastorino, F., Brignole, C., Marimpietri, D., Pagnan, G., Morando, A., Ribatti, D., Semple, S. C., Gambini, C., Allen, T. M., & Ponzoni, M. (2003). Targeted liposomal c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth and metastases in human melanoma models. Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 9(12), 4595-605.
Pastorino F, et al. Targeted Liposomal C-myc Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit Tumor Growth and Metastases in Human Melanoma Models. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Oct 1;9(12):4595-605. PubMed PMID: 14555535.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Targeted liposomal c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth and metastases in human melanoma models. AU - Pastorino,Fabio, AU - Brignole,Chiara, AU - Marimpietri,Danilo, AU - Pagnan,Gabriella, AU - Morando,Adriana, AU - Ribatti,Domenico, AU - Semple,Sean C, AU - Gambini,Claudio, AU - Allen,Theresa M, AU - Ponzoni,Mirco, PY - 2003/10/14/pubmed PY - 2004/5/21/medline PY - 2003/10/14/entrez SP - 4595 EP - 605 JF - Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research JO - Clin Cancer Res VL - 9 IS - 12 N2 - PURPOSE: Melanoma is a highly malignant and increasingly common tumor. Because the cure rate of metastatic melanoma by conventional treatment is very low, new therapeutic approaches are needed. We previously reported that coated cationic liposomes (CCL) targeted with a monoclonal antibody against the disialoganglioside (GD(2)) and containing c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODNs) resulted in a selective inhibition of the proliferation of GD(2)-positive neuroblastoma cells in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we tested the in vivo antitumor effects of this novel antisense liposomal formulation by targeting the c-myc oncogene on melanoma, a neuroectodermal tumor sharing with neuroblastoma the expression of GD(2). RESULTS: Our methods produced GD(2)-targeted liposomes that stably entrapped 90% of added c-myc asODNs. These liposomes showed a selective binding for GD(2)-positive melanoma cells in vitro. Melanoma cell proliferation was inhibited to a greater extent by GD(2)-targeted liposomes containing c-myc asODNs (aGD(2)-CCL-myc-as) than by nontargeted liposomes or free asODNs. The pharmacokinetic results obtained after i.v. injection of [(3)H]-myc-asODNs, free or encapsulated in nontargeted CCLs or GD(2)-targeted CCLs, showed that free c-myc-asODNs were rapidly cleared, with less than 10% of the injected dose remaining in blood at 30 min after injection. c-myc-asODNs encapsulated within either CCL or aGD(2)-CCL demonstrated a more favorable profile in blood, with about 20% of the injected dose of each preparation remaining in vivo at 24 h after injection. In an in vivo melanoma experimental metastatic model, aGD(2)-CCL-myc-as, at a total dose of only 10 mg of asODN per kilogram, significantly inhibited the development of microscopic metastases in the lung compared with animals treated with myc-asODNs, free or entrapped in nontargeted liposomes, or aGD(2)-CCL encapsulating scrambled asODNs (P < 0.01). Moreover, mice bearing established s.c. human melanoma xenografts treated with aGD(2)-CCL-myc-as exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth and increased survival (P < 0.01 versus control mice). The mechanism for the antitumor effects appears to be down-regulation of the expression of the c-myc protein and interruption of c-myc-mediated signaling: induction of p53 and inhibition of Bcl-2 proteins, leading to extensive tumor cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that inhibition of c-myc proto-oncogene by GD(2)-targeted antisense therapy could provide an effective approach for the treatment of melanoma in an adjuvant setting. SN - 1078-0432 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14555535/Targeted_liposomal_c_myc_antisense_oligodeoxynucleotides_induce_apoptosis_and_inhibit_tumor_growth_and_metastases_in_human_melanoma_models_ L2 - http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=14555535 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -