[Community acquired pneumonia in children].Rev Prat. 2003 Sep 15; 53(13):1428-33.RP
In children, community acquired pneumonia represent less than 10% of respiratory tract infections. In infants and toddlers, the diagnosis is difficult as, at any age, in case of isolated fever. Typical features of pneumonia are rare. Chest radiograph is necessary for confirmation and mandatory in children under 2 years of age, other diagnosis suspision or recurrent pneumonia. Identification of risk factors and/or severity criteria will guide the hospitalisation decision. Epidemiological data have a collective usefulness but help very little for the individual decision. Pneumococcus is observed at any age. Before 3 years of age, viruses and pneumococcus are predominant. After 3 years of age pneumococcus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are possible. Viral or virobacterial co-infections exist in 15 up to 25% of cases. An empiric and rapid antibiotherapy is given, pending on age, national or regional epidemiology, initial severity, risk factors. A clinical evaluation is mandatory at H48-72. Routine vaccination with the 7-valent conjugate anti-pneumococcal vaccine will modify the strategy of use of antibiotics in children's pneumonia.