The graft-versus-leukemia effect of nonmyeloablative stem cell allografts may not be sufficient to cure chronic myelogenous leukemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Nov; 32(9):897-901.BM
We treated 12 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with a low-intensity preparative regimen followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation in an attempt to confer a curative graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect with minimum morbidity. Seven patients in first chronic phase (CP1) and five in second chronic phase (CP2) (age 15-68 years) received a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, followed by a G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant from an HLA-identical sibling. Cyclosporine (CsA) was used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 384 days. Neutrophil recovery occurred at a median of 12 days. There was no transplant-related mortality. Of the seven CP1 patients transplanted, seven achieved a stable molecular remission; two with no post-transplant intervention, three after donor lymphocytes, imatinib and interferon, and two after a myeloablative stem cell transplant. Four of five CP2 patients died in blast crisis and one survived in molecular remission. Of the 12 patients with durable engraftment, six had Grades II-IV acute GVHD; six had limited chronic GVHD. These results suggest that cytoreduction is required to optimize the curative effect of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for CML.