Orbito-palpebral reconstruction in anophthalmos and severe congenital microphthalmos.Adv Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992; 9:67-80.AO
In patients with congenital anophthalmos and severe microphthalmos, a tiny orbit and socket exist with little eyelids, frequently preventing retention of a standard conformer or prosthesis. Socket expansion is sometimes impossible with microorbitism; the retention of a prosthesis is also difficult when malformations of the eyelids exist. The treatment of these difficult cases includes three stages. The first stage is orbital expansion that depends on the cephalometric studies of the patient: transverse osteotomy on the maxilla and the zygomatic bone with lateral bar by extracranial route, vertical osteotomy on the roof of the orbit by intracranial route. In some cases, the osteotomy includes expansion in the transverse and vertical diameter with bone grafts in the defects and on the lateral and superior rims. Simultaneously, socket expansion is performed by incision of the conjunctival sac circumferentially, with mucosal or split skin grafts on a conformer. The second stage includes eyelid reconstruction by different flaps. A third stage is frequently needed for correction of eyelid malposition on the prosthesis: ptosis, entropion surgery. Two cases of congenital anophthalmos are reported. Methods and indications of treatment are discussed.