[Laparoscopic repair of esophageal hiatal hernia].Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 2003 Sep; 104(9):587-92.NG
Hiatal hernias are usually classified into three distinct types: type I, sliding hernia; type II, paraesophageal hernia; and type III, a combination of type I and II hernias. Presentation of type I hernia is so-called reflux symptoms, in contrast with the symptoms associated with mechanical obstruction of the herniated stomach in type II and III hernias. Surgical indications for type I hernia depend upon the severity of esophagitis. In type II and III hernias, severe symptoms and complications represent the chief indications for repair. Totally intrathoracic stomach hernias generally present such a risk of volvulus, strangulation, and perforation that surgery is indicated even in asymptomatic and uncomplicated cases. Although the pathophysiology is different, the Nissen procedure is the surgical procedure of choice for both types of hiatal hernia. Since the first report in 1993, the laparoscopic Nissen procedure has gained wide acceptance. We have so far experienced 26 cases of hiatal hernia, 18 of type I and 8 of type II and III hernias. We used the laparoscopic Nissen procedure in all cases. There were no conversions to the open procedure. Hiatal hernia recurred only in one case with a short esophagus preoperatively. The laparoscopic Nissen procedure is here to stay for the repair of hiatal hernias regardless of their type.