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Prospective study of serum retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and esophageal and gastric cancers in China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study examined the relationship between pretrial serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and the subsequent risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia or non-cardia adenocarcinoma in subjects selected from a randomized nutritional intervention trial in Linxian, China, a region with epidemic rates of esophageal and gastric cardia cancer.

METHODS

We used a stratified case-cohort design to select cohort members for inclusion in this study. In all we measured serum concentrations of the above vitamins in 590 esophageal, 395 gastric cardia, and 87 gastric non-cardia case subjects as well as in 1053 control subjects. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS

Median values in our cohort were low for serum retinol (33.6 microg/dl), beta-carotene (4.3 microg/dl), and beta-cryptoxanthin (3.5 microg/dl), but were high for lutein/zeaxanthin (40.0 microg/dl). Gastric cardia cancer incidence fell 10% for each quartile increase in serum retinol (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.99). For esophageal cancer, an inverse association with retinol levels was found only in male non-smokers (RR = 0.79 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). For gastric non-cardia cancer, an inverse association was limited to subjects 50 years old or younger (RR = 0.58 per quartile, 95% CI = 0.31-0.96). For beta-cryptoxanthin there was a borderline significant protective association for gastric non-cardia cancer (RR = 0.88 per quartile, 95% CI = 0.76-1.0). In contrast, we found the incidence of gastric non-cardia cancer increased (RR = 1.2 per quartile, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) with increasing concentration of serum lutein/zeaxanthin.

CONCLUSIONS

In this population, we found that low retinol and high lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations increased the risks of gastric cardia and gastric non-cardia cancer respectively. We found that there were no strong associations between any of the other analytes and any of the cancer sites.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Cancer Prevention Studies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7058, USA. abnetc@mail.nih.gov

    , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Cancer causes & control : CCC 14:7 2003 Sep pg 645-55

    MeSH

    Adenocarcinoma
    Adult
    Aged
    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
    China
    Cryptoxanthins
    Esophageal Neoplasms
    Female
    Humans
    Lutein
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Prospective Studies
    Regression Analysis
    Risk Factors
    Stomach Neoplasms
    Vitamin A
    Xanthophylls
    Zeaxanthins
    beta Carotene

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14575362

    Citation

    Abnet, Christian C., et al. "Prospective Study of Serum Retinol, Beta-carotene, Beta-cryptoxanthin, and Lutein/zeaxanthin and Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in China." Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, vol. 14, no. 7, 2003, pp. 645-55.
    Abnet CC, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, et al. Prospective study of serum retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and esophageal and gastric cancers in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14(7):645-55.
    Abnet, C. C., Qiao, Y. L., Dawsey, S. M., Buckman, D. W., Yang, C. S., Blot, W. J., ... Mark, S. D. (2003). Prospective study of serum retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and esophageal and gastric cancers in China. Cancer Causes & Control : CCC, 14(7), pp. 645-55.
    Abnet CC, et al. Prospective Study of Serum Retinol, Beta-carotene, Beta-cryptoxanthin, and Lutein/zeaxanthin and Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14(7):645-55. PubMed PMID: 14575362.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prospective study of serum retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and esophageal and gastric cancers in China. AU - Abnet,Christian C, AU - Qiao,You-Lin, AU - Dawsey,Sanford M, AU - Buckman,Dennis W, AU - Yang,Chung S, AU - Blot,William J, AU - Dong,Zhi-Wei, AU - Taylor,Philip R, AU - Mark,Steven D, PY - 2003/10/25/pubmed PY - 2004/2/28/medline PY - 2003/10/25/entrez SP - 645 EP - 55 JF - Cancer causes & control : CCC JO - Cancer Causes Control VL - 14 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between pretrial serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin and the subsequent risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia or non-cardia adenocarcinoma in subjects selected from a randomized nutritional intervention trial in Linxian, China, a region with epidemic rates of esophageal and gastric cardia cancer. METHODS: We used a stratified case-cohort design to select cohort members for inclusion in this study. In all we measured serum concentrations of the above vitamins in 590 esophageal, 395 gastric cardia, and 87 gastric non-cardia case subjects as well as in 1053 control subjects. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Median values in our cohort were low for serum retinol (33.6 microg/dl), beta-carotene (4.3 microg/dl), and beta-cryptoxanthin (3.5 microg/dl), but were high for lutein/zeaxanthin (40.0 microg/dl). Gastric cardia cancer incidence fell 10% for each quartile increase in serum retinol (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.99). For esophageal cancer, an inverse association with retinol levels was found only in male non-smokers (RR = 0.79 per quartile increase, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). For gastric non-cardia cancer, an inverse association was limited to subjects 50 years old or younger (RR = 0.58 per quartile, 95% CI = 0.31-0.96). For beta-cryptoxanthin there was a borderline significant protective association for gastric non-cardia cancer (RR = 0.88 per quartile, 95% CI = 0.76-1.0). In contrast, we found the incidence of gastric non-cardia cancer increased (RR = 1.2 per quartile, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) with increasing concentration of serum lutein/zeaxanthin. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, we found that low retinol and high lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations increased the risks of gastric cardia and gastric non-cardia cancer respectively. We found that there were no strong associations between any of the other analytes and any of the cancer sites. SN - 0957-5243 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14575362/Prospective_study_of_serum_retinol_beta_carotene_beta_cryptoxanthin_and_lutein/zeaxanthin_and_esophageal_and_gastric_cancers_in_China_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=14575362.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -