Estimation of body fatness from body mass index and bioelectrical impedance: comparison of New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov; 57(11):1394-401.EJ
To compare percentage body fat (%BF) for a given body mass index (BMI) among New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children. To develop prediction equations based on bioimpedance measurements for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate to children in these three ethnic groups.
Cross-sectional study. Purposive sampling of schoolchildren aimed at recruiting three children of each sex and ethnicity for each year of age. Double cross-validation of FFM prediction equations developed by multiple regression.
Local schools in Auckland.
Healthy European, Maori and Pacific Island children (n=172, 83 M, 89 F, mean age 9.4+/-2.8(s.d.), range 5-14 y).
Height, weight, age, sex and ethnicity were recorded. FFM was derived from measurements of total body water by deuterium dilution and resistance and reactance were measured by bioimpedance analysis.
For fixed BMI, the Maori and Pacific Island girls averaged 3.7% lower %BF than European girls. For boys a similar relation was not found since BMI did not significantly influence %BF of European boys (P=0.18). Based on bioimpedance measurements a single prediction equation was developed for all children: FFM (kg)=0.622 height (cm)(2)/resistance+0.234 weight (kg)+1.166, R(2)=0.96, s.e.e.=2.44 kg. Ethnicity, age and sex were not significant predictors.
A robust equation for estimation of FFM in New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children in the 5-14 y age range that is more suitable than BMI for the determination of body fatness in field studies has been developed.