Influence of temperature and high dietary linoleic acid content on esterification, elongation, and desaturation of PUFA in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes.Lipids. 2003 Aug; 38(8):833-40.L
The esterification, desaturation, and elongation of [1-14C]18:3n-3, [1-14C]18:2n-6, and [1-14C]20:5n-3 at 5 and at 12 degrees C were studied using cultivated hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon. The salmon were fed diets, in which 0, 50, or 100% of the supplementary fish oil had been replaced by soybean oil, for 950 day-degrees at 5 and 12 degrees C. The endogenous percentage of 18:2n-6 in hepatocyte lipids was 2% in cells from fish fed a diet with 100% of the supplemental lipid from fish oil, and it was slightly less than 25% in cells from fish fed the diet with 100% of the supplemental lipid from soybean oil. Furthermore, the percentages of 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 were significantly higher in hepatocytes from fish fed on soybean oil than they were in those of fish fed on fish oil. The percentages of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, on the other hand, were lower. The endogenous levels of n-6 FA were not significantly correlated with the total amounts of radiolabeled FA esterified in hepatocyte lipids. The main radiolabeled products formed from 18:2n-6 were 20:2n-6 and 20:3n-6. The level of the important eicosanoid precursor 20:4n-6 was twice as high in hepatocyte phospholipids from fish fed the 100% soybean oil diet as it was in hepatocytes from fish fed the diet with 100% of supplemental lipid from fish oil. The main products formed from 18:3n-3 were 20:4n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3. High levels of dietary 18:2n-6 do allow, or even seem to increase, the production of 22:6n-3 from 18:3n-3 in hepatocytes. The main products formed from 20:5n-3 were 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The production of 22:6n-3 from 20:5n-3 was higher at 5 degrees C than at 12 degrees C. The percentage of 24:5n-3 was higher at 5 degrees C than it was at 12 degrees C, as was the ratio of 24:5 to 22:5. These results suggest that the elongation rate of 22:5n-3 to 24:5n-3 is higher at the lower temperature.