Influence of different photoperiods on development of gonad, cloacal gland and circulating thyroid hormones in male Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica.Indian J Exp Biol. 1992 Aug; 30(8):680-4.IJ
One day old chicks of Japanese quail were exposed to different photoperiods (LD, 8:16, 13.5:10.5, 16:8 and LL) and observations (testes weight, cloacal gland size, body weight and circulating thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were taken at the age of 3, 5, 7, 9 and 16 weeks. Results indicate that immediate reproductive development occurred in birds exposed to long photoperiods (greater than 12 hr). Growth under LD 8:16, was not apparent till 7th week and by 16 weeks, degree of gonadal development was similar in all the birds, irrespective of photoperiodic treatment. Whereas body weight of the intermediate and long day (LD 13.5:10.5, 16:8 and LL) treated birds increased upto 5th week and remained constant thereafter. But the chicks maintained under short day length (LD 8:16), showed spontaneous increase till the end of the study and birds were much heavier compared to all other groups. Plasma T4 concentration increased with increasing age till 9th week and remained unaltered thereafter. On the other hand T3 level did not change till 7th week followed by a decline. It is suggested that the initiation and degree of gonadal growth in quail depends on the availability of daily photoperiod, until the achievement of full breeding condition. Peak level of T4 observed in 9 week old birds may be involved in the development of photorefractoriness at that age.