Rapid loss of bone mineral density of the femoral neck after cessation of ice hockey training: a 6-year longitudinal study in males.J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Nov; 18(11):1964-9.JB
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of training and reduced training on BMD in young ice hockey players during 6 years of follow-up. We found BMD gains in the femoral neck in the ice hockey group compared with controls. However, these gains were lost with reduced activity after cessation of career.
It has been suggested that increasing bone mass by intense physical activity during childhood and adolescence may decrease the risk of osteoporosis later in life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this longitudinal study, 43 ice hockey players (16.7 +/- 0.6 years) and 25 control subjects (16.8 +/- 0.3 years) were studied at baseline and after a mean period of 30 and 70 months. The groups did not differ in weight or height. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) was measured for total body, femoral neck, and spine using DXA. Volumetric BMD (vBMD; mg/cm3) of the femoral neck was estimated.
The ice hockey players were found to have gained significantly more femoral neck BMD than controls (0.07 versus 0.03 g/cm2, p = 0.04) and to have gained femoral neck vBMD, whereas the controls did not (16 versus 0 mg/cm3, p = 0.049) between baseline and the first follow-up. At the first follow-up, the ice hockey players were found to have significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck and total body versus controls (p < 0.05). Between the first and second follow-ups, 21 ice hockey players stopped their active sports career. During this time period, these subjects lost significantly more femoral neck BMD (0.10 versus 0.02 g/cm2, p < 0.001) and femoral neck vBMD (38 versus 4 mg/cm3, p < 0.001) compared with the 22 ice hockey players who continued training. The former ice hockey players also lost significantly more neck vBMD (38 versus 14 mg/cm3, p = 0.009) compared with the controls during the same period. At the second follow-up, only the 22 ice hockey players who had continued their training were found to have significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01), total body (p = 0.04), and spine (p = 0.02) compared with the controls. The former athletes were found to have intermediate BMD at all sites.
In summary, we have demonstrated fast BMD loss at the femoral neck after decreased physical activity in young men. We conclude that ice hockey training during childhood and adolescence may not prevent the development of osteoporosis of the femoral neck later in life if the activity is not maintained.2003;18:1964-1969