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Dose-dependent protective effect of coffee, tea, and smoking in Parkinson's disease: a study in ethnic Chinese.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Few studies have examined the relationship of coffee and tea in Parkinson's disease (PD). The potential protective effect of coffee intake and risk of PD has not been studied in a Chinese population. There is a high prevalence of caffeine takers among Chinese in our population.

OBJECTIVE

We undertook a case control study to examine the relationship between coffee and tea drinking, cigarette smoking, and other enviromental factors and risk of PD among ethnic Chinese in our population.

METHODS AND RESULTS

300 PD and 500 population controls were initially screened. Two hundred case control pairs matched for age, gender, and race were finally included in the analysis. Univariate analysis revealed significant association of PD with coffee drinking (p<0.0005), tea drinking (p=0.019), alcohol drinking (p=0.001), cigarette smoking (p<0.0005), and exposure to heavy metals (p=0.006). Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that amount of coffee drunk (OR 0.787, 95%CI 0.664-0.932, p=0.006), amount of tea drunk (OR 0.724, 95%CI 0.559-0.937, p=0.014), number of cigarettes smoked (OR 0.384, 95%CI 0.204-0.722, p=0.003), history of heavy metal and toxin exposure (OR 11.837, 95%CI 1.075-130.366, p=0.044), and heart disease (OR 5.518, 95%CI 1.377-22.116, p=0.016) to be significant factors associated with PD. One unit of coffee and tea (3 cups/day for 10 years) would lead to a 22% and 28% risk reduction of PD. One unit of cigarette smoke (3 packs/day for 10 years) reduced the risk of PD by 62%.

CONCLUSIONS

We demonstrated a dose-dependent protective effect of PD in coffee and tea drinkers and smokers in an ethnic Chinese population. A history of exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of PD, supporting the multifactorial etiologies of the disease.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. gnrtek@sgh.com.sg

    , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Journal of the neurological sciences 216:1 2003 Dec 15 pg 163-7

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Asian Continental Ancestry Group
    Caffeine
    Case-Control Studies
    China
    Coffee
    Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
    Environmental Exposure
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Metals, Heavy
    Middle Aged
    Neuroprotective Agents
    Nicotine
    Odds Ratio
    Parkinson Disease
    Risk Factors
    Singapore
    Smoking
    Statistics as Topic
    Tea

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14607318

    Citation

    Tan, E-K, et al. "Dose-dependent Protective Effect of Coffee, Tea, and Smoking in Parkinson's Disease: a Study in Ethnic Chinese." Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 216, no. 1, 2003, pp. 163-7.
    Tan EK, Tan C, Fook-Chong SM, et al. Dose-dependent protective effect of coffee, tea, and smoking in Parkinson's disease: a study in ethnic Chinese. J Neurol Sci. 2003;216(1):163-7.
    Tan, E. K., Tan, C., Fook-Chong, S. M., Lum, S. Y., Chai, A., Chung, H., ... Wong, M. C. (2003). Dose-dependent protective effect of coffee, tea, and smoking in Parkinson's disease: a study in ethnic Chinese. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 216(1), pp. 163-7.
    Tan EK, et al. Dose-dependent Protective Effect of Coffee, Tea, and Smoking in Parkinson's Disease: a Study in Ethnic Chinese. J Neurol Sci. 2003 Dec 15;216(1):163-7. PubMed PMID: 14607318.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dose-dependent protective effect of coffee, tea, and smoking in Parkinson's disease: a study in ethnic Chinese. AU - Tan,E-K, AU - Tan,C, AU - Fook-Chong,S M C, AU - Lum,S Y, AU - Chai,A, AU - Chung,H, AU - Shen,H, AU - Zhao,Y, AU - Teoh,M L, AU - Yih,Y, AU - Pavanni,R, AU - Chandran,V R, AU - Wong,M C, PY - 2003/11/11/pubmed PY - 2004/2/27/medline PY - 2003/11/11/entrez SP - 163 EP - 7 JF - Journal of the neurological sciences JO - J. Neurol. Sci. VL - 216 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined the relationship of coffee and tea in Parkinson's disease (PD). The potential protective effect of coffee intake and risk of PD has not been studied in a Chinese population. There is a high prevalence of caffeine takers among Chinese in our population. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a case control study to examine the relationship between coffee and tea drinking, cigarette smoking, and other enviromental factors and risk of PD among ethnic Chinese in our population. METHODS AND RESULTS: 300 PD and 500 population controls were initially screened. Two hundred case control pairs matched for age, gender, and race were finally included in the analysis. Univariate analysis revealed significant association of PD with coffee drinking (p<0.0005), tea drinking (p=0.019), alcohol drinking (p=0.001), cigarette smoking (p<0.0005), and exposure to heavy metals (p=0.006). Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that amount of coffee drunk (OR 0.787, 95%CI 0.664-0.932, p=0.006), amount of tea drunk (OR 0.724, 95%CI 0.559-0.937, p=0.014), number of cigarettes smoked (OR 0.384, 95%CI 0.204-0.722, p=0.003), history of heavy metal and toxin exposure (OR 11.837, 95%CI 1.075-130.366, p=0.044), and heart disease (OR 5.518, 95%CI 1.377-22.116, p=0.016) to be significant factors associated with PD. One unit of coffee and tea (3 cups/day for 10 years) would lead to a 22% and 28% risk reduction of PD. One unit of cigarette smoke (3 packs/day for 10 years) reduced the risk of PD by 62%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a dose-dependent protective effect of PD in coffee and tea drinkers and smokers in an ethnic Chinese population. A history of exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of PD, supporting the multifactorial etiologies of the disease. SN - 0022-510X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14607318/Dose_dependent_protective_effect_of_coffee_tea_and_smoking_in_Parkinson's_disease:_a_study_in_ethnic_Chinese_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022510X03002363 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -