Control of T cell activation by CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells.Novartis Found Symp 2003; 252:24-36; discussion 36-44, 106-14NF
Although the concept of a separate lineage of T cells specifically equipped to suppress immune responses was initially proposed more than 30 years ago, progress in this area of immunoregulation has been hampered by the lack of solid biochemical and molecular data to support the existence of the soluble products of these purported suppressor T cells. Studies over the past 5-10 years have identified a distinct lineage of CD4+CD25+ regulatory or suppressor T cells that control autoreactive effector cells and prevent autoimmunity. The mechanism by which CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibit T cell activation in vivo or in vitro is still poorly defined. While autoreactive effector T cells undergo massive proliferation and expansion following injection into immunocompromised recipients, CD4+CD25+ T cells do not inhibit this lymphopaenia-induced proliferation and act later in the activation process at the site of immune damage in the target organ. The development of in vitro models that partially mimic the in vivo properties of the CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells has facilitated their characterization. A member of the tumour necrosis receptor family, the GITR is expressed on CD4+CD25+ T cells and after interaction with its ligand down-regulates suppressor activity. Multiple methods of manipulating both the numbers of CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells and their activation status are now available and will rapidly be applied to therapy of autoimmune, infectious and malignant diseases.